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Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Airworthiness Cybersecurity Regulation

2020-08-31
EPR2020013
Its extensive application of data networks, including enhanced external digital communication, forced the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), for the first time, to set “Special Conditions” for cybersecurity. In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. ...In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. The resulting International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) resolutions, US and European Union (EU) legislations, FAA and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulations, and the DO-326/ED-202 set of standards are already the de-facto, and soon becoming the official, standards for legislation, regulation, and best practices, with the FAA already mandating it to a constantly growing extent for a few years now—and EASA adopting the set in its entirety in July 2020.
Training / Education

Keys to Creating a Cybersecurity Process from the J3061 Process Framework

This allows an organization to develop an internal cybersecurity process consistent with its other processes in order to build cybersecurity robustness into their cyber- physical systems. ...This seminar will define key concepts in cybersecurity and discuss what a cybersecurity process consists of and why one is needed for the development of cyber-physical vehicle systems.
Technical Paper

Integrated Safety and Security Development in the Automotive Domain

2017-03-28
2017-01-1661
The recently released SAE J3061 guidebook for cyber-physical vehicle systems provides high-level principles for automotive organizations for identifying and assessing cybersecurity threats and for designing cybersecurity aware systems in close relation to the ISO 26262 standard for the functional safety of road vehicles. ...., infotainment, car-2-car or car-2-infrastructure communication) as well as new advances toward advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) or even autonomous driving functions make cybersecurity another key factor to be taken into account by vehicle suppliers and manufacturers. ...Although these can capitalize on experiences from many other domains, they still have to face several unique challenges when gearing up for specific cybersecurity challenges. A key challenge is related to the increasing interconnection of automotive systems with networks (such as Car2X).
Technical Paper

Secure Vehicular Communication Using Blockchain Technology

2020-04-14
2020-01-0722
Also, all the existing methods for vehicular communication rely on a centralized server which itself invite massive cyber-security threats. These threats and challenges can be addressed by using the Blockchain (BC) technology, where each transaction is logged in a decentralized immutable BC ledger.
Training / Education

Introduction to Highly Automated Vehicles

2020-12-07
Every year, the U.S. on average, experiences more than 34,000 traffic deaths and over 5 million vehicle crashes. While the trend in traffic deaths has been generally downward for the past decade, most of this reduction has been the result of optimizing passive occupant crash protection systems such as seatbelts and airbags. Highly automated vehicle's (HAV's) offer the potential to significantly reduce vehicle crashes by perceiving a dangerous situation before the crash has occurred and supporting the human driver with proactive warnings and in some cases active interventions to avoid or mitigate the crash.
Technical Paper

Safe and Secure Development: Challenges and Opportunities

2018-04-03
2018-01-0020
The ever-increasing complexity and connectivity of driver assist functions pose challenges for both Functional Safety and Cyber Security. Several of these challenges arise not only due to the new functionalities themselves but due to numerous interdependencies between safety and security. Safety and security goals can conflict, safety mechanisms might be intentionally triggered by attackers to impact functionality negatively, or mechanisms can compete for limited resources like processing power or memory to name just some conflict potentials. But there is also the potential for synergies, both in the implementation as well as during the development. For example, both disciplines require mechanisms to check data integrity, are concerned with freedom from interference and require architecture based analyses. So far there is no consensus in the industry on how to best deal with these interdependencies in automotive development projects.
Technical Paper

Research on CAN Network Security Aspects and Intrusion Detection Design

2017-09-23
2017-01-2007
With the rapid development of vehicle intelligent and networking technology, the IT security of automotive systems becomes an important area of research. In addition to the basic vehicle control, intelligent advanced driver assistance systems, infotainment systems will all exchange data with in-vehicle network. Unfortunately, current communication network protocols, including Controller Area Network (CAN), FlexRay, MOST, and LIN have no security services, such as authentication or encryption, etc. Therefore, the vehicle are unprotected against malicious attacks. Since CAN bus is actually the most widely used field bus for in-vehicle communications in current automobiles, the security aspects of CAN bus is focused on. Based on the analysis of the current research status of CAN bus network security, this paper summarizes the CAN bus potential security vulnerabilities and the attack means.
Journal Article

uACPC: Client-Initiated Privacy-Preserving Activation Codes for Pseudonym Certificates Model

2020-07-27
Abstract With the adoption of Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) technology, security and privacy of vehicles are paramount. To avoid tracking while preserving vehicle/driver’s privacy, modern vehicular public key infrastructure provision vehicles with multiple short-term pseudonym certificates. However, provisioning a large number of pseudonym certificates can lead to an enormous growth of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) during its revocation process. One possible approach to avoid such CRL growth is by relying on activation code (AC)-based solutions. In such solutions, the vehicles are provisioned with batches of encrypted certificates, which are decrypted periodically via the ACs (broadcasted by the back-end system). When the system detects a revoked vehicle, it simply does not broadcast the respective vehicle’s AC. As a result, revoked vehicles do not receive their respective AC and are prevented from decrypting their certificates.
Journal Article

Assuring Vehicle Update Integrity Using Asymmetric Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Public Key Cryptography (PKC)

2020-08-24
Abstract Over the past forty years, the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) technology has grown in both sophistication and volume in the automotive sector, and modern vehicles may comprise hundreds of ECUs. ECUs typically communicate via a bus-based network architecture to collectively support a broad range of safety-critical capabilities, such as obstacle avoidance, lane management, and adaptive cruise control. However, this technology evolution has also brought about risks: if ECU firmware is compromised, then vehicle safety may be compromised. Recent experiments and demonstrations have shown that ECU firmware is not only poorly protected but also that compromised firmware may pose safety risks to occupants and bystanders.
Technical Paper

Securing the Secret Key

2019-01-16
2019-01-0097
Recent advances in automotive technologies have paved way to a new era of connectivity. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are getting deployed in automobiles; many companies are developing driverless cars; connected cars are no more a work of mere research. [1] Vehicle manufacturers are developing ways to interface mobile devices with vehicles. However, all these advances in technology has introduced security risks. Unlike traditional computing systems, the security risk of an automobile can be fatal and can result in loss of lives [2]. The in-vehicle network of an automobile was originally designed to operate in a closed environment and hence network security was not considered during its design [3]. Several studies have already shown that an in-vehicle network can be easily compromised and an intruder can take full control of the vehicle. Researchers are working on various ways to solve this problem. Securing the in-vehicle communication by encrypting the messages is one such way.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Automated Vehicles

2020-02-28
EPR2020005
This SAE EDGE Research Report explores the many legal issues raised by the advent of automated vehicles. While promised to bring major changes to our lives, there are significant legal challenges that have to be overcome before they can see widespread use. A century’s worth of law and regulation were written with only human drivers in mind, meaning they have to be amended before machines can take the wheel. Everything from key federal safety regulations down to local parking laws will have to shift in the face of AVs. This report undertakes an examination of the AV laws of Nevada, California, Michigan, and Arizona, along with two failed federal AV bills, to better understand how lawmakers have approached the technology. States have traditionally regulated a great deal of what happens on the road, but does that still make sense in a world with AVs? Would the nascent AV industry be able to survive in a world with fifty potential sets of rules?
Technical Paper

Integrating STPA into ISO 26262 Process for Requirement Development

2017-03-28
2017-01-0058
Developing requirements for automotive electric/electronic systems is challenging, as those systems become increasingly software-intensive. Designs must account for unintended interactions among software features, combined with unforeseen environmental factors. In addition, engineers have to iteratively make architectural tradeoffs and assign responsibilities to each component in the system to accommodate new safety requirements as they are revealed. ISO 26262 is an industry standard for the functional safety of automotive electric/electronic systems. It specifies various processes and procedures for ensuring functional safety, but does not limit the methods that can be used for hazard and safety analysis. System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) is a new technique for hazard analysis, in the sense that hazards are caused by unsafe interactions between components (including humans) as well as component failures and faults.
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2020

2020-08-06
Big future for e-axles, advanced motors Top transmission engineers claim driveline electrification will transform everything from all-wheel drive to Class 8 tractor-trailers. Big data's benefits keep a-comin' Gigabytes of data are being collected and increasingly mined to improve field operations, maintenance and even vehicle design. Transformative times Despite a challenging climate, technology development progresses - as does the sharing of innovative ideas - virtually. Editorial Zeroing in on zero emissions Softing envisions secure, reliable predictive maintenance Reconstructing accidents in the ADAS age Paving the way to improved truck fuel efficiency Nikola looks to accelerate production, hydrogen infrastructure Mecalac designs unique-pivoting swing loader Q&A' Horiba's Joshua Israel discusses complex regulatory landscape's impact on commercial-vehicle development and shift to electrification.
Technical Paper

Enabling Efficient Functional Safety Audits - The Missing Link between ISO 26262 and Automotive SPICE

2019-04-02
2019-01-0144
In the field of electric and electronic (E/E) design for the automotive industry, there are separate traditions related to functional safety and software quality assurance. Both relying on the evaluation of the processes used; Automotive SPICE provides detailed guidance on how to perform this evaluation whilst ISO 26262 does not and simply mention Automotive SPICE as one possible solution. ISO 26262 additionally requires for an evaluation of the functional safety achieved by the product and uses the process evaluation (or functional safety audit in ISO 26262 terms) to support the final functional safety assessment. The purpose is to evaluate the implementation of the necessary safety processes according to the claimed scope defined in the safety plan. Automotive SPICE does not make a distinction on whether the application of the software under evaluation is safety related or not.
Standard

Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Cooperative Driving Automation for On-Road Motor Vehicles

2020-05-07
CURRENT
J3216_202005
This document describes machine-to-machine (M2M) communication to enable cooperation between two or more participating entities or communication devices possessed or controlled by those entities. The cooperation supports or enables performance of the dynamic driving task (DDT) for a subject vehicle with driving automation feature(s) engaged. Other participants may include other vehicles with driving automation feature(s) engaged, shared road users (e.g., drivers of manually operated vehicles or pedestrians or cyclists carrying personal devices), or road operators (e.g., those who maintain or operate traffic signals or workzones). Cooperative driving automation (CDA) aims to improve the safety and flow of traffic and/or facilitate road operations by supporting the movement of multiple vehicles in proximity to one another. This is accomplished, for example, by sharing information that can be used to influence (directly or indirectly) DDT performance by one or more nearby road users.
Research Report

Unsettled Technology Areas in Autonomous Vehicle Test and Validation

2019-06-12
EPR2019001
Automated driving system (ADS) technology and ADS-enabled/operated vehicles - commonly referred to as automated vehicles and autonomous vehicles (AVs) - have the potential to impact the world as significantly as the internal combustion engine. Successful ADS technologies could fundamentally transform the automotive industry, civil planning, the energy sector, and more. Rapid progress is being made in artificial intelligence (AI), which sits at the core of and forms the basis of ADS platforms. Consequently, autonomous capabilities such as those afforded by advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and other automation solutions are increasingly becoming available in the marketplace. To achieve highly or fully automated or autonomous capabilities, a major leap forward in the validation of these ADS technologies is required. Without this critical cog, helping to ensure the safety and reliability of these systems and platforms, the full capabilities of ADS technology will not be realized.
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