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Technical Paper

Cybersecurity Metrics for Automotive Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0138
With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles. ...Cybersecurity for automotive systems is challenging and one of the major challenges is how to measure this specific system property. ...With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Onboard Cybersecurity Diagnostic System for Connected Vehicles

2021-09-21
2021-01-1249
Here, we discuss the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations for next generation BEV/HEV, its vulnerabilities and cybersecurity threats that come with hacking. We propose three cybersecurity attack detection and defense methods: Cyber-Attack detection algorithm, Time-Based CAN Intrusion Detection Method and, Feistel Cipher Block Method. ...These control methods autonomously diagnose a cybersecurity problem in a vehicle’s onboard system using an OBD interface, such as OBD-II when a fault caused by a cyberattack is detected, All of this is achieved in an internal communication network structure.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Airworthiness Cybersecurity Regulation

2020-08-31
EPR2020013
Its extensive application of data networks, including enhanced external digital communication, forced the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), for the first time, to set “Special Conditions” for cybersecurity. In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. ...In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. The resulting International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) resolutions, US and European Union (EU) legislations, FAA and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulations, and the DO-326/ED-202 set of standards are already the de-facto, and soon becoming the official, standards for legislation, regulation, and best practices, with the FAA already mandating it to a constantly growing extent for a few years now—and EASA adopting the set in its entirety in July 2020.
Article

SAE course delivers an introduction to the latest aviation cybersecurity essentials

2019-06-11
SAE International’s two-day course, DO-326A and ED-202A: An Introduction to the New and Mandatory Aviation Cyber-Security Essentials, introduces attendees to industry best practices for real-world aviation cybersecurity risk assessment, development, assurance. ...SAE International’s two-day course, DO-326A and ED-202A: An Introduction to the New and Mandatory Aviation Cyber-Security Essentials, introduces attendees to industry best practices for real-world aviation cybersecurity risk assessment, development, assurance.
Journal Article

Delivering Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment Based on ISO 21434: Practical and Tooling Considerations

2020-12-31
Abstract Automotive cybersecurity engineers now have the challenge of delivering Risk Assessments of their products using a method that is described in the new standard for automotive cybersecurity: International Organization for Standardization/Society of Automotive Engineers (ISO/SAE) 21434. ...Abstract Automotive cybersecurity engineers now have the challenge of delivering Risk Assessments of their products using a method that is described in the new standard for automotive cybersecurity: International Organization for Standardization/Society of Automotive Engineers (ISO/SAE) 21434.
Book

Enterprise Information Security and Privacy

2009-01-01
Here’s a unique and practical book that addresses the rapidly growing problem of information security, privacy, and secrecy threats and vulnerabilities. This authoritative resource helps you understand what really needs to be done to protect sensitive data and systems and how to comply with the burgeoning roster of data protection laws and regulations. The book examines the effectiveness and weaknesses of current approaches and guides you towards practical methods and doable processes that can bring about real improvement in the overall security environment. You gain insight into the latest security and privacy trends, learn how to determine and mitigate risks, and discover the specific dangers and responses regarding the most critical sectors of a modern economy.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles

2021-09-13
EPR2021019
Modern automobiles collect around 25 gigabytes of data per hour and autonomous vehicles are expected to generate more than 100 times that number. In comparison, the Apollo Guidance Computer assisting in the moon launches had only a 32-kilobtye hard disk. Without question, the breadth of in-vehicle data has opened new possibilities and challenges. The potential for accessing this data has led many entrepreneurs to claim that data is more valuable than even the vehicle itself. These intrepid data-miners seek to explore business opportunities in predictive maintenance, pay-as-you-drive features, and infrastructure services. Yet, the use of data comes with inherent challenges: accessibility, ownership, security, and privacy. Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles examines some of the pressing questions on the minds of both industry and consumers. Who owns the data and how can it be used?
Book

Commercial Aviation and Cyber Security: A Critical Intersection

2016-12-22
As cyber attacks become more frequent at all levels, the commercial aviation industry is gearing up to respond accordingly. Commercial Aviation and Cyber Security: A Critical Intersection is a timely contribution to those responsible for keeping aircraft and infrastructure safe. It covers areas of vital interest such as aircraft communications, next-gen air transportation systems, the impact of the Internet of Things (IoT), regulations, the efforts being developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and other regulatory bodies. The book also collects important information on the best practices already adopted by other industries such as utilities, defense and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the US. It equally addresses risk management, response plans to cyber attacks, managing supply chains and their cyber- security flaws, personnel training, and the sharing of information among industry players.
Standard

NATIONAL AEROSPACE AND DEFENSE CONTRACTORS ACCREDITATION PROGRAM (NADCAP) REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCREDITATION OF PASS THROUGH DISTRIBUTORS

1993-06-24
HISTORICAL
AS7103
This aerospace standard outlines the minimum requirements for the quality assurance program of a distributor of new aircraft or aerospace parts and material. It is designed to aid in the surveillance and accreditation of a distributor who procures new parts and materials and resells these products to customers or other distributors in the aviation or aerospace industry, i.e., a PASS THROUGH distributor. This standard may be used to determine the adequacy and implementation of the distributor’s quality assurance program.
Best Practice

Guidelines for Mobility Data Sharing Governance and Contracting

2020-04-08
CURRENT
MDC00001202004
Digitally enabled mobility vehicles and services, including dockless bikesharing and electric scooter sharing, are generating and collecting a growing amount of mobility data. Mobility data holds great potential to support transportation officials and their efforts to manage the public right-of-way, but the unlimited distribution of mobility data carries untested risks to privacy and public trust. The Mobility Data Collaborative™ has identified the need to improve and coordinate understanding among all parties around foundational policy and legal issues to support mobility data sharing, including privacy and contracting. The guidelines are geared towards supporting a scalable mobility data sharing framework that aligns the interests of the public and private sectors while addressing privacy, transparency, data ownership, and consumer trust.
Technical Paper

Challenges in the Regulatory Framework of Automated Driving

2019-01-09
2019-26-0097
Automated Driving (AD) is foreseen to be one of the major social and technological challenges in the coming years. Many manufacturers are developing new models with cutting-edge functionalities, which are not included in the scope of the current regulatory framework. Apart from demonstrating their know-how and expertise about AD, their willingness to sell their AD models in the European market is accelerating the rule-making system. However, which is the roadmap for the European regulatory framework? Policy makers and regulatory bodies are pushing their boundaries at all levels (national and international) in order to introduce modifications in existing regulations. These regulations will enable the introduction of these new functionalities into the market. Without decreasing the standards of safety and security, the implementation of a clear and harmonized regulatory framework and approval process is extremely needed.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Automated Vehicles

2020-02-28
EPR2020005
This SAE EDGE Research Report explores the many legal issues raised by the advent of automated vehicles. While promised to bring major changes to our lives, there are significant legal challenges that have to be overcome before they can see widespread use. A century’s worth of law and regulation were written with only human drivers in mind, meaning they have to be amended before machines can take the wheel. Everything from key federal safety regulations down to local parking laws will have to shift in the face of AVs. This report undertakes an examination of the AV laws of Nevada, California, Michigan, and Arizona, along with two failed federal AV bills, to better understand how lawmakers have approached the technology. States have traditionally regulated a great deal of what happens on the road, but does that still make sense in a world with AVs? Would the nascent AV industry be able to survive in a world with fifty potential sets of rules?
Standard

Standard for Preparing a DMSMS Management Plan

2017-04-14
WIP
STD0016A
This document defines the requirements for developing a DMSMS Management Plan, hereinafter also called the Plan, to assure customers that the Plan owner is using a proactive DMSMS process for minimizing the cost and impact that part and material obsolescence will have on equipment delivered by the Plan owner. The technical requirements detailed in clause 5 ensure that the Plan owner can meet the requirement of having a process to address obsolescence as required by Industry Standards such as EIA-4899 "Standard for Preparing an Electronic Components Management Plan" and DoD Programs as required by MIL-STD-3018 "Parts Management". Owners of DMSMS Management Plans include System Integrators, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), and logistics support providers.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Facing Automated Vehicles and Insurance

2020-08-05
EPR2020015
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report explores how the deployment of automated vehicles (AVs) will affect the insurance industry and the principles of liability that underly the structure of insurance in the US. As we trade human drivers for suites of sensors and computers, who (or what) is responsible when there is a crash? The owner of the vehicle? The automaker that built it? The programmer that wrote the code? Insurers have over 100 years of experience and data covering human drivers, but with only a few years’ worth of information on AVs – how can they properly predict the true risks associated with their deployment? Without an understanding of the nature and risks of AVs, how can the government agencies that regulate the insurance industry provide proper oversight? Do the challenges AVs present require a total reworking of our insurance and liability systems, or can our current structures be adapted to fit them with minor modifications?
Standard

Implementation Guide for Data Management

2014-07-01
WIP
GEIAHB859A
The federal government and industry have moved to concurrent acquisition and development processes using integrated process teams (IPTs). These processes are supported by timely, accurate, cross functional access to data within an integrated data environment (IDE) enabled by advances in information technology (IT). Since the advent of acquisition reform in 1994, Data Management (DM) practices have evolved from being directed by a prescriptive set of standards and procedures to use of the guidance in a principles-based standard -- ANSI/EIA 859.

GEIA Handbook 859 provides implementation guidance for ANSI/EIA 859, with discussions of applications of the standard's principles, tools, examples, and case studies. Handbook 859 is organized according to the lifecycle of data management and covers activities from the pre-RFP stage through records disposition.

Technical Paper

Recognizing Manipulated Electronic Control Units

2015-04-14
2015-01-0202
Combatting the modification of automotive control systems is a current and future challenge for OEMs and suppliers. ‘Chip-tuning’ is a manifestation of manipulation of a vehicle's original setup and calibration. With the increase in automotive functions implemented in software and corresponding business models, chip tuning will become a major concern. Recognizing and reporting of tuned control units in a vehicle is required for technical as well as legal reasons. This work approaches the problem by capturing the behavior of relevant control units within a machine learning system called a recognition module. The recognition module continuously monitors vehicle's sensor data. It comprises a set of classifiers that have been trained on the intended behavior of a control unit before the vehicle is delivered. When the vehicle is on the road, the recognition module uses the classifier together with current data to ascertain that the behavior of the vehicle is as intended.
Technical Paper

It Takes a Village: A Case Study of Business Development and Innovation in a UAS/AUS Ecosystem to Address Critical Industry Challenges

2021-06-16
2021-01-1002
Entrepreneurial innovation that spurs economic development requires a collaborative cluster of cooperative effort, across a diverse ecosystem of partners. Literature provides resounding evidence to support the notion that an innovative, entrepreneurial ecosystem is critical to both successful economic development and industry sector growth. The UAS/AUS industry sector is a fast-growing sector across the United States, with regional leadership demonstrated in North Dakota, California, North Carolina, New York, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico. This case study is focused on investigating how the North Dakota autonomous systems ecosystem continues to evolves and develop mechanisms and partnerships to address industry pain points, facilitate cutting edge research, ensure high-quality UAS/AUS testing, and support an adaptive business development pipeline across the entrepreneurial life cycle.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: September 2019

2019-09-05
Editorial The new 'face' of privacy The Navigator No trust in AI systems without data protection Innovation Nation In the mobility space, Israel is rivaling Silicon Valley for smarts and start-ups - and beats it in chutzpah. Autonomy in your Face Biometric technology is deemed essential to ensuring AV driving safety and advancing the user experience-if privacy issues don't derail its deployment. About Face! To win acceptance, deployment of facial-recognition technology needs to fit within a picture-perfect consumer and legal framework that balances benefits with privacy protection. The Vehicle as Gaming Device Audi spin-off Holoride uses VR to turn the back seat into an entertainment platform. BlackBerry Tech Duo Sees Emergence of Vehicle-based Platforms Though likely to provide the OS of autonomy, BlackBerry also anticipates a larger shift to automobiles as software platforms.
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