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Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Cybersecurity Based on Dedicated Security Hardware and ECDH Algorithm

2017-09-23
2017-01-2005
Vehicle cybersecurity consists of internal security and external security. Dedicated security hardware will play an important role in car’s internal and external security communication. ...For certain AURIX MCU consisting of HSM, the experiment result shows that cheaper 32-bit HSM’s AES calculating speed is 25 times of 32-bit main controller, so HSM is an effective choice to realize cybersecurity. After comparing two existing methods that realize secure CAN communication, A Modified SECURE CAN scheme is proposed, and differences of the three schemes are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Hypervisor Implementation in Vehicle Networks

2020-04-14
2020-01-1334
The hypervisor offers many benefits to the vehicle architecture, both operationally and with cybersecurity. The proposed mitigant provides the structure to partition the various VMs. This allows for the different functions to be managed within their own distinct VM. ...While the cybersecurity applications are numerous, there are also the operational benefits. The hypervisor is designed to not only manage the VMs, but also to increase the efficiency of these via resource management.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: August 2017

2017-08-03
Is automotive ready for the inevitable? Cybersecurity experts talk defense strategies. Active Aero takes flight Reconfigurable "smart" aerodynamic aids are stretching performance-car envelopes in every direction.
Technical Paper

The Study of Secure CAN Communication for Automotive Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1658
Cyber security is becoming increasingly critical in the car industry. Not only the entry points to the external world in the car need to be protected against potential attack, but also the on-board communication in the car require to be protected against attackers who may try to send unauthorized CAN messages. However, the current CAN network was not designed with security in mind. As a result, the extra measures have to be taken to address the key security properties of the secure CAN communication, including data integrity, authenticity, confidentiality and freshness. While integrity and authenticity can be achieved by using a relatively straightforward algorithms such as CMAC (Cipher-based Message Authentication Code) and Confidentiality can be handled by a symmetric encryption algorithm like AES128 (128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard), it has been recognized to be more challenging to achieve the freshness of CAN message.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Attack and Defense Model for the Automotive Domain

2019-01-17
Abstract In the automotive domain, the overall complexity of technical components has increased enormously. Formerly isolated, purely mechanical cars are now a multitude of cyber-physical systems that are continuously interacting with other IT systems, for example, with the smartphone of their driver or the backend servers of the car manufacturer. This has huge security implications as demonstrated by several recent research papers that document attacks endangering the safety of the car. However, there is, to the best of our knowledge, no holistic overview or structured description of the complex automotive domain. Without such a big picture, distinct security research remains isolated and is lacking interconnections between the different subsystems. Hence, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the overall security of a car or to identify aspects that have not been sufficiently covered by security analyses.
Technical Paper

Selftrust - A Practical Approach for Trust Establishment

2020-04-14
2020-01-0720
In recent years, with increase in external connectivity (V2X, telematics, mobile projection, BYOD) the automobile is becoming a target of cyberattacks and intrusions. Any such intrusion reduces customer trust in connected cars and negatively impacts brand image (like the recent Jeep Cherokee hack). To protect against intrusion, several mechanisms are available. These range from a simple secure CAN to a specialized symbiote defense software. A few systems (e.g. V2X) implement detection of an intrusion (defined as a misbehaving entity). However, most of the mechanisms require a system-wide change which adds to the cost and negatively impacts the performance. In this paper, we are proposing a practical and scalable approach to intrusion detection. Some benefits of our approach include use of existing security mechanisms such as TrustZone® and watermarking with little or no impact on cost and performance. In addition, our approach is scalable and does not require any system-wide changes.
Technical Paper

Safety Development Trend of the Intelligent and Connected Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0085
Automotive safety is always the focus of consumers, the selling point of products, the focus of technology. In order to achieve automatic driving, interconnection with the outside world, human-automatic system interaction, the security connotation of intelligent and connected vehicles (ICV) changes: information security is the basis of its security. Functional safety ensures that the system is operating properly. Behavioral safety guarantees a secure interaction between people and vehicles. Passive security should not be weakened, but should be strengthened based on new constraints. In terms of information safety, the threshold for attacking cloud, pipe, and vehicle information should be raised to ensure that ICV system does not fail due to malicious attacks. The cloud is divided into three cloud platforms according to functions: ICVs private cloud, TSP cloud, public cloud.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Sensors for Automated Road Vehicles

2018-10-18
EPR2018001
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the new generation of sensors designed for vehicles capable of automated driving. Four main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, specifying a standardized terminology and taxonomy to be used for discussing the sensors required by automated vehicles. Second, generating standardized tests and procedures for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensors. Third, creating a standardized set of tools and methods to ensure the security, robustness, and integrity of data collected by such sensors. The fourth issue, regarding the ownership and privacy of data collected by automated vehicle sensors, is considered only briefly here since its scope far exceeds the technical issues that are the primary focus of the present report. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies.
Technical Paper

Challenges in the Regulatory Framework of Automated Driving

2019-01-09
2019-26-0097
Automated Driving (AD) is foreseen to be one of the major social and technological challenges in the coming years. Many manufacturers are developing new models with cutting-edge functionalities, which are not included in the scope of the current regulatory framework. Apart from demonstrating their know-how and expertise about AD, their willingness to sell their AD models in the European market is accelerating the rule-making system. However, which is the roadmap for the European regulatory framework? Policy makers and regulatory bodies are pushing their boundaries at all levels (national and international) in order to introduce modifications in existing regulations. These regulations will enable the introduction of these new functionalities into the market. Without decreasing the standards of safety and security, the implementation of a clear and harmonized regulatory framework and approval process is extremely needed.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Automated Vehicles

2020-02-28
EPR2020005
This SAE EDGE Research Report explores the many legal issues raised by the advent of automated vehicles. While promised to bring major changes to our lives, there are significant legal challenges that have to be overcome before they can see widespread use. A century’s worth of law and regulation were written with only human drivers in mind, meaning they have to be amended before machines can take the wheel. Everything from key federal safety regulations down to local parking laws will have to shift in the face of AVs. This report undertakes an examination of the AV laws of Nevada, California, Michigan, and Arizona, along with two failed federal AV bills, to better understand how lawmakers have approached the technology. States have traditionally regulated a great deal of what happens on the road, but does that still make sense in a world with AVs? Would the nascent AV industry be able to survive in a world with fifty potential sets of rules?
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Facing Automated Vehicles and Insurance

2020-08-05
EPR2020015
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report explores how the deployment of automated vehicles (AVs) will affect the insurance industry and the principles of liability that underly the structure of insurance in the US. As we trade human drivers for suites of sensors and computers, who (or what) is responsible when there is a crash? The owner of the vehicle? The automaker that built the vehicle? The programmer that wrote the code? AVs are complicated machines, which in turn means that assigning liability for their failures can be a complex calculation. Insurers have over 100 years of experience and data covering human drivers, but with only a few years’ worth of information on AVs (and only on experimental ones at that), how can they properly predict the true risks associated with their deployment? Likewise, without an understanding of the nature and risks of AVs, how can the government agencies that regulate the insurance industry provide proper oversight?
Research Report

Unsettled Technology Opportunities for Vehicle Health Management and the Role for Health-Ready Components

2020-03-17
EPR2020003
Game-changing opportunities abound for the application of vehicle health management (VHM) across multiple transportation-related sectors, but key unresolved issues continue to impede progress. VHM technology is based upon the broader field of advanced analytics. Much of traditional analytics efforts to date have been largely descriptive in nature and offer somewhat limited value for large-scale enterprises. Analytics technology becomes increasingly valuable when it offers predictive results or, even better, prescriptive results, which can be used to identify specific courses of action. It is this focus on action which takes analytics to a higher level of impact, and which imbues it with the potential to materially impact the success of the enterprise. Artificial intelligence (AI), specifically machine learning technology, shows future promise in the VHM space, but it is not currently adequate by itself for high-accuracy analytics.
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2019

2019-02-01
Over-the-air affair Remote updating of software and firmware on commercial trucks and off-highway machines is on the rise, not only for maintenance functions but also to add new features like operator-assist technology. Developments in engine-based gensets With demand for generator sets steady and regulatory change settling, suppliers can rationalize their offerings and push improvements in areas like noise abatement and economy. Testing, testing and even more testing The commercial-vehicle market is eager to adopt more ADAS and automated-driving innovations, but before those technologies get to the road they must first pass rigorous testing practices that prove their efficacy. Smart and connected powertrains FPT Tech Day reveals multi-power Cursor X concept, other "4.0 innovations" for hydrogen fuel cell, electric and natural gas propulsion.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2019

2019-07-05
Editorial The consolidation plot thickens The Navigator As the world turns to C-V2X, Europe picks WiFi Complexity of Autonomous-Systems Simulation, Validation Soars to the Clouds Scalable, cloud-based architectures are gaining greater acceptance for simulating and testing the myriad development aspects of automated driving. Connectivity Solutions for AVs The promises of fully connected autonomous vehicles are great, but so are the challenges. What M&E Can Teach the AV Industry About Data Media & entertainment offers important learnings on data retention, management, scalability and security. The Rodney Dangerfield of Automated-Driving Sensors Radar and lidar get all the attention, but Inertial Measurement Units are the backbone of sensor fusion. Suppliers are scrambling to make IMUs more accurate-and much less expensive. The Sense-itive Side of Autonomous Vehicles BASF is exploring how specific materials-and even paint colors and finishes-can improve the capabilities of AV sensors.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics in Automated Vehicle Data Sharing for Verification and Validation Purposes

2020-06-03
EPR2020007
Unsettled Topics in Automated Vehicle Data Sharing for Verification and Validation Purposes discusses the unsettled issue of sharing the terabytes of driving data generated by Automated Vehicles (AVs) on a daily basis. Perception engineers use these large datasets to analyze and model the automated driving systems (ADS) that will eventually be integrated into future “self-driving” vehicles. However, the current industry practices of collecting data by driving on public roads to understand real-world scenarios is not practical and will be unlikely to lead to safe deployment of this technology anytime soon. Estimates show that it could take 400 years for a fleet of 100 AVs to drive enough miles to prove that they are as safe as human drivers.
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2018

2018-02-01
Electrification not a one-size-fits-all solution Efforts in the off-highway industry have been under way for decades, but the technology still faces implementation challenges. SuperTruck redux A year plus into phase two of the promising DOE program to dramatically improve freight efficiency, project leads from three of the participating truck OEMs share their progress thus far and technology paths moving forward. From research to reality Danfoss works closely with off-highway OEMs throughout the development process, testing and demonstrating machines packed with new technology features. Big Data a focus for 2018 SAE President Mircea Gradu Velodyne CQO sees use of Big Data as a way to capitalize on multiple industry trends including vehicle electrification and automated vehicles.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Development Ecosystem

2020-03-17
EPR2020004
With over 100 years of operation, the current automobile industry has settled into an equilibrium with the development of methodologies, regulations, and processes for improving safety. In addition, a nearly $2-trillion market operates in the automotive ecosystem with connections into fields ranging from insurance to advertising. Enabling this ecosystem is a well-honed, tiered supply chain and an established development environment. Autonomous vehicle (AV) technology is a leap forward for the existing automotive industry; now the automobile is expected to manage perception and decision-making tasks. The safety technologies associated with these tasks were presented in an earlier SAE EDGE™ Research Report, “Unsettled Technology Areas in Autonomous Vehicle Test and Validation.”
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: November 3, 2016

2016-11-03
SAE Convergence 2016 Talk of the healthy aspects of disruption mingles with SAE's renowned technical emphasis to foster the auto industry's continuing evolution toward electrification and autonomy. The Battery Man Speaks The speed of progress in automotive lithium batteries has impressed AABC's Dr. Menahem Anderman. So has silicon-graphite anode technology development from Tesla and Panasonic. Industry 4.0: The smart factory arrives The plants that produce automotive systems and vehicles are increasingly employing intelligent systems, Big Data and advanced analytics to improve quality, safety and efficiency. Editorial: Promise of 48 volts is no shock Nissan unveils variable-compression-ratio ICE for 2018 Infiniti production model Optimizing engine oil warm-up strategies for 'real-world' driving In search of higher-energy-content batteries Making Multiphysics fast and convenient I.D.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Balancing Virtual, Closed-Course, and Public-Road Testing of Automated Driving Systems

2019-12-19
EPR2019011
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the challenges of determining the optimal balance for testing automated driving systems (ADS). Three main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, determining what kind of testing an ADS needs before it is ready to go on the road. Second, the current, optimal, and realistic balance of simulation testing and real-world testing. Third, the challenges of sharing data in the industry. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies. The three technical issues identified in this report should be discussed in greater depth with the aims of, first, clarifying the scope of the industry-wide alignment needed; second, prioritizing the issues requiring resolution; and, third, creating a plan to generate the necessary frameworks, practices, and protocols.
Technical Paper

High Performance Processor Architecture for Automotive Large Scaled Integrated Systems within the European Processor Initiative Research Project

2019-04-02
2019-01-0118
Autonomous driving systems and connected mobility are the next big developments for the car manufacturers and their suppliers during the next decade. To achieve the high computing power needs and fulfill new upcoming requirements due to functional safety and security, heterogeneous processor architectures with a mixture of different core architectures and hardware accelerators are necessary. To tackle this new type of hardware complexity and nevertheless stay within monetary constraints, high performance computers, inspired by state of the art data center hardware, could be adapted in order to fulfill automotive quality requirements. The European Processor Initiative (EPI) research project tries to come along with that challenge for next generation semiconductors. To be as close as possible to series development needs for the next upcoming car generations, we present a hybrid semiconductor system-on-chip architecture for automotive.
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