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Journal Article

Cybersecurity Metrics for Automotive Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0138
With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming International Organization for Standardization and the Society for Automotive Engineers (ISO/SAE) 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (UNECE WP.29), it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles. ...Cybersecurity for automotive systems is challenging, and one of the major challenges is how to measure this specific system property. ...With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming International Organization for Standardization and the Society for Automotive Engineers (ISO/SAE) 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (UNECE WP.29), it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Onboard Cybersecurity Diagnostic System for Connected Vehicles

2021-09-21
2021-01-1249
Here, we discuss the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations for next generation BEV/HEV, its vulnerabilities and cybersecurity threats that come with hacking. We propose three cybersecurity attack detection and defense methods: Cyber-Attack detection algorithm, Time-Based CAN Intrusion Detection Method and, Feistel Cipher Block Method. ...These control methods autonomously diagnose a cybersecurity problem in a vehicle’s onboard system using an OBD interface, such as OBD-II when a fault caused by a cyberattack is detected, All of this is achieved in an internal communication network structure.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Airworthiness Cybersecurity Regulation

2020-08-31
EPR2020013
Its extensive application of data networks, including enhanced external digital communication, forced the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), for the first time, to set “Special Conditions” for cybersecurity. In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. ...In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. The resulting International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) resolutions, US and European Union (EU) legislations, FAA and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulations, and the DO-326/ED-202 set of standards are already the de-facto, and soon becoming the official, standards for legislation, regulation, and best practices, with the FAA already mandating it to a constantly growing extent for a few years now—and EASA adopting the set in its entirety in July 2020.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Cybersecurity Based on Dedicated Security Hardware and ECDH Algorithm

2017-09-23
2017-01-2005
Vehicle cybersecurity consists of internal security and external security. Dedicated security hardware will play an important role in car’s internal and external security communication. ...For certain AURIX MCU consisting of HSM, the experiment result shows that cheaper 32-bit HSM’s AES calculating speed is 25 times of 32-bit main controller, so HSM is an effective choice to realize cybersecurity. After comparing two existing methods that realize secure CAN communication, A Modified SECURE CAN scheme is proposed, and differences of the three schemes are analyzed.
Article

SAE course delivers an introduction to the latest aviation cybersecurity essentials

2019-06-11
SAE International’s two-day course, DO-326A and ED-202A: An Introduction to the New and Mandatory Aviation Cyber-Security Essentials, introduces attendees to industry best practices for real-world aviation cybersecurity risk assessment, development, assurance. ...SAE International’s two-day course, DO-326A and ED-202A: An Introduction to the New and Mandatory Aviation Cyber-Security Essentials, introduces attendees to industry best practices for real-world aviation cybersecurity risk assessment, development, assurance.
Technical Paper

Strategy to Adopt ISO/SAE 21434 Cyber Security Assurance Level in the Organization

2022-03-29
2022-01-0121
The recent standard, ISO/SAE 21434, is introduced to address the cybersecurity requirements for the development of electrical and electronic components in the road vehicles. ...This standard has introduced a new classification scheme, cybersecurity assurance level (CAL), that helps in validating the process rigor needed for mitigating different threat scenarios. ...CAL values can be determined at the earlier stages of the SDLC (cybersecurity concept phase) through the knowledge of attack vectors and attack severity specific to a system.
Journal Article

Delivering Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment Based on ISO 21434: Practical and Tooling Considerations

2020-12-31
Abstract Automotive cybersecurity engineers now have the challenge of delivering Risk Assessments of their products using a method that is described in the new standard for automotive cybersecurity: International Organization for Standardization/Society of Automotive Engineers (ISO/SAE) 21434. ...Abstract Automotive cybersecurity engineers now have the challenge of delivering Risk Assessments of their products using a method that is described in the new standard for automotive cybersecurity: International Organization for Standardization/Society of Automotive Engineers (ISO/SAE) 21434.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software

2021-04-21
EPR2021009
Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software introduces the impact of software in advanced automotive applications, the role of open-source communities in accelerating innovation, and the important topic of safety and cybersecurity. As electronic functionality is captured in software and a bigger percentage of that software is open-source code, some critical challenges arise concerning security and validation.
Technical Paper

Hypervisor Implementation in Vehicle Networks

2020-04-14
2020-01-1334
The hypervisor offers many benefits to the vehicle architecture, both operationally and with cybersecurity. The proposed mitigant provides the structure to partition the various VMs. This allows for the different functions to be managed within their own distinct VM. ...While the cybersecurity applications are numerous, there are also the operational benefits. The hypervisor is designed to not only manage the VMs, but also to increase the efficiency of these via resource management.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: August 2017

2017-08-03
Is automotive ready for the inevitable? Cybersecurity experts talk defense strategies. Active Aero takes flight Reconfigurable "smart" aerodynamic aids are stretching performance-car envelopes in every direction.
Technical Paper

Future of Automotive Embedded Hardware Trust Anchors (AEHTA)

2022-03-29
2022-01-0122
In conjunction with an increasing number of related laws and regulations (such as UNECE R155 and ISO 21434), these drive security requirements in different domains and areas. 2 In this paper we examine the upcoming trends in EE architectures and investigate the underlying cyber-security threats and corresponding security requirements that lead to potential requirements for “Automotive Embedded Hardware Trust Anchors” (AEHTA).
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Remote Operation for On-road Driving Automation

2021-12-15
EPR2021028
On-road vehicles equipped with driving automation features—where a human might not be needed for operation on-board—are entering the mainstream public space. However, questions like “How safe is safe enough?” and “What to do if the system fails?” persist. This is where remote operation comes in, which is an additional layer to the automated driving system where a human remotely assists the so-called “driverless” vehicle in certain situations. Such remote-operation solutions introduce additional challenges and potential risks as the entire vehicle-network-human now needs to work together safely, effectively, and practically. Unsettled Issues in Remote Operation for On-road Driving Automation highlights technical questions (e.g., network latency, bandwidth, cyber security) and human aspects (e.g., workload, attentiveness, situational awareness) of remote operation and introduces evolving solutions.
Book

Enterprise Information Security and Privacy

2009-01-01
Here’s a unique and practical book that addresses the rapidly growing problem of information security, privacy, and secrecy threats and vulnerabilities. This authoritative resource helps you understand what really needs to be done to protect sensitive data and systems and how to comply with the burgeoning roster of data protection laws and regulations. The book examines the effectiveness and weaknesses of current approaches and guides you towards practical methods and doable processes that can bring about real improvement in the overall security environment. You gain insight into the latest security and privacy trends, learn how to determine and mitigate risks, and discover the specific dangers and responses regarding the most critical sectors of a modern economy.
Technical Paper

Attacking Ground Vehicles with Ransomware: Watch the Horizon

2022-03-29
2022-01-0358
Ransomware is not a new method of malware infection. This historically had been experienced in the enterprise in nearly every industry. This has been especially problematic in the medical and manufacturing fields. As the attackers saturate the specifically targeted industries, the attackers will expand their target industries. One of these which has not been significantly explored by the ransomware groups are the embedded systems and automobile environment. This set of targets is massive and provides for a vast attack potential. While this has not experienced this attack methodology at length, the research and efforts are creeping towards this as a natural extension of the business. The research focusses on the history of ransomware, uses in the enterprise, possible attack vectors with ground vehicles, and defenses to be explored and implemented to secure automobiles, fleets, and the industries.
Journal Article

Secure Boot Revisited: Challenges for Secure Implementations in the Automotive Domain

2020-08-13
Abstract Secure boot, although known for more than 20 years, frequent attacks from hackers that show numerous ways to bypass the security mechanism, including electronic control units (ECUs) of the automotive industry. This paper investigates the major causes of security weaknesses of secure boot implementations. Based on penetration test experiences, we start from an attacker’s perspective to identify and outline common implementation weaknesses. Then, from a Tier-One perspective, we analyze challenges in the research and development process of ECUs between original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and suppliers that amplify the probability of such weakness. The paper provides recommendations to increase the understanding of implementing secure boot securely on both sides and derives a set of reference requirements as a starting point for secure boot ECU requirements.
Technical Paper

The Study of Secure CAN Communication for Automotive Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1658
Cyber security is becoming increasingly critical in the car industry. Not only the entry points to the external world in the car need to be protected against potential attack, but also the on-board communication in the car require to be protected against attackers who may try to send unauthorized CAN messages. However, the current CAN network was not designed with security in mind. As a result, the extra measures have to be taken to address the key security properties of the secure CAN communication, including data integrity, authenticity, confidentiality and freshness. While integrity and authenticity can be achieved by using a relatively straightforward algorithms such as CMAC (Cipher-based Message Authentication Code) and Confidentiality can be handled by a symmetric encryption algorithm like AES128 (128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard), it has been recognized to be more challenging to achieve the freshness of CAN message.
Technical Paper

Development and Research of Environment Perception Technology in Intelligent Networked Transportation System

2020-12-30
2020-01-5152
As an important part of intelligent driving vehicles and intelligent networked transportation systems, environmental perception technology can provide important decision-making basis for the overall planning of intelligent driving vehicles and transportation systems. This paper reviews the current research on environment perception technology in the current intelligent networked transportation system, and analyzes four key research directions and related progress of environmental sensing technologies, including single sensor device, high-precision map, multi-sensor information fusion and vehicle-road collaboration. On the basis of analyzing and summarizing existing related research, this article elaborates the development trend and key directions of future environmental perception technology, including the integration of deep learning, vehicle-road integration, information security and multi-dimensional perception technology related development directions.
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