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Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0196
Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases.
Technical Paper

Secure Deterministic L2/L3 Ethernet Networking for Integrated Architectures

2017-09-19
2017-01-2103
Cybersecurity attacks exploit vulnerabilities related to the increased complexity and connectivity of critical infrastructure systems. ...Network security is a core component of the overall cyber-security and defense-in-depth capability for distributed architectures. Protection mechanism for information, interface and system integrity, communication availability, and data confidentiality are required for design of safe and secure integrated embedded infrastructure.
Technical Paper

Cyber Security in the Automotive Domain – An Overview

2017-03-28
2017-01-1652
Driven by the growing internet and remote connectivity of automobiles, combined with the emerging trend to automated driving, the importance of security for automotive systems is massively increasing. Although cyber security is a common part of daily routines in the traditional IT domain, necessary security mechanisms are not yet widely applied in the vehicles. At first glance, this may not appear to be a problem as there are lots of solutions from other domains, which potentially could be re-used. But substantial differences compared to an automotive environment have to be taken into account, drastically reducing the possibilities for simple reuse. Our contribution is to address automotive electronics engineers who are confronted with security requirements. Therefore, it will firstly provide some basic knowledge about IT security and subsequently present a selection of automotive specific security use cases.
Journal Article

Cyberattacks and Countermeasures for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles

2019-10-14
Abstract ICVs are expected to make the transportation safer, cleaner, and more comfortable in the near future. However, the trend of connectivity has greatly increased the attack surfaces of vehicles, which makes in-vehicle networks more vulnerable to cyberattacks which then causes serious security and safety issues. In this article, we therefore systematically analyzed cyberattacks and corresponding countermeasures for in-vehicle networks of intelligent and connected vehicles (ICVs). Firstly, we analyzed the security risk of ICVs and proposed an in-vehicle network model from a hierarchical point of view. Then, we discussed possible cyberattacks at each layer of proposed network model.
Technical Paper

Test Method for the SAE J3138 Automotive Cyber Security Standard

2020-04-14
2020-01-0142
This paper will provide an Overview of Automotive Cyber Security Standards related to the Vehicle OBD-II Data Link. The OBD-II Connector Attack Tree is described with respect to the SAE J3138 requirements for Intrusive vs. non-Intrusive Services. A proposed test method for SAE J3138 is described including hardware and software scripting. Finally, example test results are reviewed and compared with a potential threat boundary.
Technical Paper

Securing J1939 Communications Using Strong Encryption with FIPS 140-2

2017-03-28
2017-01-0020
Since 2001, all sensitive information of U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 140-2 Security Requirements. The requirements specify a formal certification process. The process ensures that validated encryption modules have implemented the standard, and have passed a rigorous testing and review processes. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective encryption in hardware. This paper introduces the motivation and context for the encryption diagnostics security in terms of all vehicles in general, not just trucks which use SAE J1939 communications. Several practical scenarios for using such encryption hardware and the advantages of using hardware compared to software private-key encryption and public-key encryption are described.
Technical Paper

Vehicle E/E Architecture and Its Adaptation to New Technical Trends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0862
With the ever-increasing requirements on vehicle performance, as well as the trend of vehicle becoming an integral part of a much bigger ecosystem involving automated driving, intelligent transportation and smart city, more and more electrical/electronic (E/E) systems are integrated in vehicles. Vehicle E/E architecture being the fundamental organization of E/E components, the relationship among the components and with the environment, as well as the principles guiding the design and evolution, has essential influences on vehicle E/E system functions and performance. This paper gives the definition of vehicle E/E architecture and provides different views. The guidelines, contents and process of E/E architecture design are discussed. The evolution of E/E architecture, influence of the latest technical trends including electrification, automated driving, and connectivity functions on E/E architecture, and how vehicle E/E architecture adapts to the technical trends are studied.
Technical Paper

Transformational Technologies Reshaping Transportation - An Academia Perspective

2019-10-14
2019-01-2620
This paper and the associated lecture present an overview of technology trends and of market and business opportunities created by technology, as well as of the challenges posed by environmental and economic considerations. Commercial vehicles are one of the engines of our economy. Moving goods and people efficiently and economically is a key to continued industrial development and to strong employment. Trucks are responsible for nearly 70% of the movement of goods in the USA (by value) and represent approximately 300 billion of the 3.21 trillion annual vehicle miles travelled by all vehicles in the USA while public transit enables mobility and access to jobs for millions of people, with over 10 billion trips annually in the USA creating and sustaining employment opportunities.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: October 6, 2015

2015-10-06
2016 Malibu sheds 300 lb, adds new hybrid system More wheelbase, style, fuel economy, and comfort aim to move GM's volume midsize sedan from the sidelines to the fast lane. Lighter, more powerful 2016 Honda Pilot The third-generation SUV gets a sleek new look and plenty of slick technology for enhanced performance and safety. 2016 Mazda MX-5 stays true to its roots Mazda engineers give the industry a lesson in getting more from less. 2016 Land Rover Discovery Sport spearheads more efficient Land Rovers JLR's space-efficient, flexible SUV moves to JLR's new Ingenium modular engines. Audi chooses high technology, cautious design evolution for new A4 In addition to lighter weight and significant improvements in efficiency, the new car employs plenty of technology and driver support.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: November 3, 2016

2016-11-03
SAE Convergence 2016 Talk of the healthy aspects of disruption mingles with SAE's renowned technical emphasis to foster the auto industry's continuing evolution toward electrification and autonomy. The Battery Man Speaks The speed of progress in automotive lithium batteries has impressed AABC's Dr. Menahem Anderman. So has silicon-graphite anode technology development from Tesla and Panasonic. Industry 4.0: The smart factory arrives The plants that produce automotive systems and vehicles are increasingly employing intelligent systems, Big Data and advanced analytics to improve quality, safety and efficiency. Editorial: Promise of 48 volts is no shock Nissan unveils variable-compression-ratio ICE for 2018 Infiniti production model Optimizing engine oil warm-up strategies for 'real-world' driving In search of higher-energy-content batteries Making Multiphysics fast and convenient I.D.
Technical Paper

Analyze This! Sound Static Analysis for Integration Verification of Large-Scale Automotive Software

2019-04-02
2019-01-1246
Safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements. One such requirement, imposed by all contemporary safety standards, is that no critical run-time errors must occur. Runtime errors can be caused by undefined or unspecified behavior of the programming language; examples are buffer overflows or data races. They may cause erroneous or erratic behavior, induce system failures, and constitute security vulnerabilities. A sound static analyzer reports all such defects in the code, or proves their absence. Sound static program analysis is a verification technique recommended by ISO/FDIS 26262 for software unit verification and for the verification of software integration. In this article we propose an analysis methodology that has been implemented with the static analyzer Astrée. It supports quick turn-around times and gives highly precise whole-program results.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: September 2019

2019-09-05
Editorial The new 'face' of privacy The Navigator No trust in AI systems without data protection Innovation Nation In the mobility space, Israel is rivaling Silicon Valley for smarts and start-ups - and beats it in chutzpah. Autonomy in your Face Biometric technology is deemed essential to ensuring AV driving safety and advancing the user experience-if privacy issues don't derail its deployment. About Face! To win acceptance, deployment of facial-recognition technology needs to fit within a picture-perfect consumer and legal framework that balances benefits with privacy protection. The Vehicle as Gaming Device Audi spin-off Holoride uses VR to turn the back seat into an entertainment platform. BlackBerry Tech Duo Sees Emergence of Vehicle-based Platforms Though likely to provide the OS of autonomy, BlackBerry also anticipates a larger shift to automobiles as software platforms.
Magazine

Momentum: March 2015

2015-03-01
Diesel gets a promotion at SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge The main rules change for the 2015 season is creation of a new engine category (diesel), the event's organizer notes in providing an overview of the SAE Collegiate Design Series competition. Wisconsin-Stout puts faith in gearbox redesign for Baja Blue Devil Racing Team believes packaging and durability advantages more than offset weight and low-end-torque penalties. Test cell at Kansas University does double duty Single-cylinder engine test cell designed for research into biodiesel also serves as an instruction tool for students. University of Michigan students have hand in Volt battery reliability Technology co-developed by U of M monitors the quality of welds used in the joining of Chevy Volt battery cells.
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: April 2018

2018-04-05
Connectivity takes center stage Telematic links have become the norm, helping fleet owners and operators improve efficiency and letting OEMs predict component failures. More power, less noise, fewer emissions These key attributes drive development of new generators both big and small. TARDEC pursues advanced power generation U.S. Army, GM collaborate on fuel-cell-generated electricity to power the vehicle's propulsion system and onboard electronics, while providing off-vehicle power via an Exportable Power Take-Off unit. Developing an alternative engine concept Ricardo's CryoPower engine leverages two unique combustion techniques for reduced emissions and fuel consumption-liquid nitrogen and split combustion. Long-haul trucking and stationary power generation will be the first beneficiaries of the technologies. Technology time-warp The road to autonomous driving has been under construction for decades, as showcased by SAE's Mobility History Committee at the 2018 WCX in Detroit.
Magazine

Tech Briefs: April 2018

2018-04-01
Laser Detecting Systems Enhancing Survivability and Lethality on the Battlefield Designing With Plastics for Military Equipment Engine Air-Brakes Paving the Way to Quieter Aircraft Nett Warrior Enhancing Battlefield Connectivity and Communications XPONENTIAL 2018 - An AUVSI Experience Communications in Space: A Deep Subject First Air-Worthy Metal-Printed RF Filter Ready for Takeoff Validation of Automated Prediction of Blood Product Needs Algorithm Processing Continuous Non-Invasive Vital Signs Streams (ONPOINT4) Using a combination of non-invasive sensors, advanced algorithms, and instruments built for combat medics could reduce hemorrhaging and improve survival rates. Calculation of Weapon Platform Attitude and Cant Using Available Sensor Feedback Successful development of mobile weapon systems must incorporate operation on sloped terrain.
Book

Energy in the 21st Century (2nd Edition)

2004-01-01
This book, in its second edition, examines the energy sources that play a vital role in society today, as well as those that may be the primary energy sources of tomorrow. From our reliance on fossil fuels to the quest for energy independence, and the environmental issues that follow each decision, this book delves into the most prominent energy issues of our time. Armed with this information, the reader can think critically about the direction they want this world to take. Contents: Brief History of Energy Consumption Fossil Energy - Coal Fossil Energy - Oil and Gas Peak Oil Nuclear Energy Renewable Energy - Solar Energy Renewable Energy - Wind Energy Renewable Energy - Energy from Water Renewable Energy - Bioenergy and Synfuels Energy Carrier, Energy Storage and Hybrid Energy Systems Electricity Generation and Distribution Energy Economics Future Issues - Geopolitics of Energy Future Issues - Energy Forecasts
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