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Book

Cybersecurity for Commercial Vehicles

2018-08-28
It delivers details on key subject areas including: • SAE International Standard J3061; the cybersecurity guidebook for cyber-physical vehicle systems • The differences between automotive and commercial vehicle cybersecurity. • Forensics for identifying breaches in cybersecurity. • Platooning and fleet implications. • Impacts and importance of secure systems for today and for the future. ...This book provides a thorough view of cybersecurity to encourage those in the commercial vehicle industry to be fully aware and concerned that their fleet and cargo could be at risk to a cyber-attack. ...It delivers details on key subject areas including: • SAE International Standard J3061; the cybersecurity guidebook for cyber-physical vehicle systems • The differences between automotive and commercial vehicle cybersecurity. • Forensics for identifying breaches in cybersecurity. • Platooning and fleet implications. • Impacts and importance of secure systems for today and for the future.
Journal Article

A Quantitative Analysis of Autonomous Vehicle Cybersecurity as a Component of Trust

2023-08-10
Abstract Connected autonomous vehicles that employ internet connectivity are technologically complex, which makes them vulnerable to cyberattacks. Many cybersecurity researchers, white hat hackers, and black hat hackers have discovered numerous exploitable vulnerabilities in connected vehicles. ...This study expanded the technology acceptance model (TAM) to include cybersecurity and level of trust as determinants of technology acceptance. This study surveyed a diverse sample of 209 licensed US drivers over 18 years old.
Journal Article

Cybersecurity Considerations for Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders

2018-12-14
Abstract Trust in the digital data from heavy vehicle event data recorders (HVEDRs) is paramount to using the data in legal contests. Ensuring the trust in the HVEDR data requires an examination of the ways the digital information can be attacked, both purposefully and inadvertently. The goal or objective of an attack on HVEDR data will be to have the data omitted in a case. To this end, we developed an attack tree and establish a model for violating the trust needed for HVEDR data. The attack tree provides context for mitigations and also for functional requirements. A trust model is introduced as well as a discussion on what constitutes forensically sound data. The main contribution of this article is an attack tree-based model of both malicious and accidental events contributing to compromised event data recorder (EDR) data. A comprehensive list of mitigations for HVEDR systems results from this analysis.
Technical Paper

Requirements for the Automated Generation of Attack Trees to Support Automotive Cybersecurity Assurance

2022-03-29
2022-01-0124
Although ISO/SAE 21434 recommends the development of an assurance case for cybersecurity, the precise nature of a cybersecurity case is not explicitly defined within the standard. ...In the case of cybersecurity, this problem is exacerbated by the increasing complexity of vehicular onboard systems, their inherent obscurity due to their heterogenous architecture, emergent behaviors, and the disparate motivations and resources of potential threat agents.
Journal Article

A Global Survey of Standardization and Industry Practices of Automotive Cybersecurity Validation and Verification Testing Processes and Tools

2023-11-16
Abstract The United Nation Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Regulation 155—Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Management System (UN R155) mandates the development of cybersecurity management systems (CSMS) as part of a vehicle’s lifecycle. ...Due to the focus of R155 and its suggested implementation guideline, ISO/SAE 21434:2021—Road Vehicle Cybersecurity Engineering, mainly centering on the alignment of cybersecurity risk management to the vehicle development lifecycle, there is a gap in knowledge of proscribed activities for validation and verification testing. ...An inherent component of the CSMS is cybersecurity risk management and assessment. Validation and verification testing is a key activity for measuring the effectiveness of risk management, and it is mandated by UN R155 for type approval.
Technical Paper

Wireless Charging for EV/HEV with Prescriptive Analytics, Machine Learning, Cybersecurity and Blockchain Technology: Ongoing and Future Trends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0790
Due to the rapid development in the technological aspect of the autonomous vehicle (AV), there is a compelling need for research in the field vehicle efficiency and emission reduction without affecting the performance, safety and reliability of the vehicle. Electric vehicle (EV) with rechargeable battery has been proved to be a practical solution for the above problem. In order to utilize the maximum capacity of the battery, a proper power management and control mechanism need to be developed such that it does not affect the performance, reliability and safety of vehicle. Different optimization techniques along with deterministic dynamic programming (DDP) approach are used for the power distribution and management control. The battery-operated electric vehicle can be recharged either by plug-in a wired connection or by the inductive mean (i.e. wirelessly) with the help of the electromagnetic field energy.
Technical Paper

Challenges with the Introduction of X-By-Wire Technologies to Passenger Vehicles and Light Trucks in regards to Functional Safety, Cybersecurity and Availability

2023-04-11
2023-01-0581
Classic vehicle production had limitations in bringing the driving commands to the actuators for vehicle motion (engine, steering and braking). Steering columns, hydraulic tubes or steel cables needed to be placed between the driver and actuator. Change began with the introduction of e-gas systems. Mechanical cables were replaced by thin, electric signal wires. The technical solutions and legal standardizations for addressing the steering and braking systems, were not defined at this time. Today, OEMs are starting E/E-Architecture transformations for manifold reasons and now have the chance to remove the long hydraulic tubes for braking and the solid metal columns used for steering. X-by-wire is the way forward and allows for higher Autonomous Driving (AD) levels for automated driving vehicles. This offers new opportunities to design the vehicle in-cabin space. This paper will start with the introduction of x-by-wire technologies.
Technical Paper

An Adaptable Security by Design Approach for Ensuring a Secured Remote Monitoring Teleoperation (RMTO) of an Autonomous Vehicle

2023-04-11
2023-01-0579
The separation of cybersecurity considerations in RMTO is barely considered, as so far, most available research and activities are mainly focused on AV. ...The main focus of this paper is addressing RMTO cybersecurity utilising an adaptable security-by-design approach, although security-by-design is still in the infant state within automotive cybersecurity. ...The main focus of this paper is addressing RMTO cybersecurity utilising an adaptable security-by-design approach, although security-by-design is still in the infant state within automotive cybersecurity. An adaptable security-by-design approach for RMTO covers Security Engineering Life-cycle, Logical Security Layered Concept, and Security Architecture.
Journal Article

Towards a Blockchain Framework for Autonomous Vehicle System Integrity

2021-05-05
Ensuring cybersecurity in an ECU network is challenging as there is no centralized authority in the vehicle to provide security as a service. ...While progress has been made to address cybersecurity vulnerabilities, many of these approaches have focused on enterprise, software-centric systems and require more computational resources than typically available for onboard vehicular devices.
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: October 2018

2018-10-01
Quotes from COMVEC 2018 Industry leaders spoke extensively about all things autonomous-ADAS, big data, connectivity, cybersecurity, machine learning-at the annual SAE event. Here's some of what they had to say. Fuel-cell Class 8-take 2.0 With a longer-range and more-refined fuel cell-powered heavy-duty truck, Toyota aims to eventually eliminate emissions from trucks serving increasingly congested California ports. ...Editorial Bring innovation, disruption in-house Adding 3D printing to design, manufacturing processes Upstream devoted to truck cybersecurity threats Jacobs employs cylinder deactivation in HD engines to lower CO2, NOx Emissions reductions continue to disrupt CV industry Mercedes doubles down on electric vans and buses, considers fuel cells Off-road bus from Torsus transports to hard-to-reach places Q&A Perkins pursues plug-and-play connectivity
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software

2021-04-21
EPR2021009
Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software introduces the impact of software in advanced automotive applications, the role of open-source communities in accelerating innovation, and the important topic of safety and cybersecurity. As electronic functionality is captured in software and a bigger percentage of that software is open-source code, some critical challenges arise concerning security and validation.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: July 7, 2015

2015-07-07
To serve and protect As cars become more connected and automated, cybersecurity concerns are rising. Industry engineers have many tools and techniques and are now deploying encryption and standards to ensure that vehicle controls are not altered or usurped by unauthorized people.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2022

2022-07-01
An Holistic Approach to Verifying Cybersecurity in Design A powerful new generation of test and sim solutions aims to address specific security concerns associated with automotive designs.
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