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Technical Paper

Challenges in Integrating Cybersecurity into Existing Development Processes

2020-04-14
2020-01-0144
Strategies designed to deal with these challenges differ in the way in which added duties are assigned and cybersecurity topics are integrated into the already existing process steps. Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. ...Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. A cybersecurity development approach is frequently perceived as introducing impediments, that bear the risk of cybersecurity measures receiving a lower priority to reduce inconvenience. ...For an established development process and a team accustomed to this process, adding cybersecurity features to the product initially means inconvenience and reduced productivity without perceivable benefits.
Technical Paper

An Integrated View on Automotive SPICE, Functional Safety and Cyber-Security

2020-04-14
2020-01-0145
This increases the attractiveness of an attack on vehicles and thus introduces new risks for vehicle cybersecurity. Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. ...Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. Aware of this fact, the automotive industry has, therefore, recently taken multiple efforts in designing and producing safe and secure connected and automated vehicles. ...As the domain geared up for the cybersecurity challenges, they leveraged experiences from many other domains, but must face several unique challenges.
Training / Education

Introduction to Automated Vehicle Safety Multi-Agent, Functional, SOTIF, and Cybersecurity

You’ll learn the main attributes of safety as applied to automated vehicles, including the four types of safety: Functional Safety, Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF), Multi-agent safety, and safety involved in cybersecurity attacks. The discussion will enable participants to conceive of the various applicable design aspects of safety, clarify the role of SOTIF, multi-agent safety, and cybersecurity safety and address the development of multi-agent safety using a probabilistic and stochastic framework.
Training / Education

Overview of Highly Automated Vehicles

Various testing approaches are discussed, for software, sensors, cybersecurity and the vehicle itself. The course also covers liability and ethical considerations for HAV’s and reviews current state and federal regulations, as well as potential future regulatory actions.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2020

2020-07-02
Editorial High noon for high-level autonomy The Navigator A fork in the road for the AV business The Electric, Autonomous Revolution Lifts Off Engineering the new generation of electric and hybrid vertical-take-off-and-landing vehicles at Wisk and Elroy Air. New SAE Standard for Automated-Driving Developers Developed in less than a year, SAE's new J3216 standard will impact traffic management, operations and safety for automated mobility. Making Data Logging, Replay and Prototyping More Efficient High levels of continuity and compatibility are vital to avoid interruptions in the development process - and reduce cost. Radar Death Star ELunewave's 3D-printed spherical antenna makes for fast, 360-degree single-snapshot readings that are claimed to beat the slower sweeps of conventional radar. The Case for FOTA in AV Data Security Firmware over-the-air data transmission helps OEMs drive secure vehicle autonomy.
Journal Article

Vulnerability of FlexRay and Countermeasures

2019-05-23
Abstract The importance of in-vehicle network security has increased with an increase in automated and connected vehicles. Hence, many attacks and countermeasures have been proposed to secure the controller area network (CAN), which is an existent in-vehicle network protocol. At the same time, new protocols-such as FlexRay and Ethernet-which are faster and more reliable than CAN have also been proposed. European OEMs have adopted FlexRay as a control network that can perform the fundamental functions of a vehicle. However, there are few studies regarding FlexRay security. In particular, studies on attacks against FlexRay are limited to theoretical studies or simulation-based experiments. Hence, the vulnerability of FlexRay is unclear. Understanding this vulnerability is necessary for the application of countermeasures and improving the security of future vehicles. In this article, we highlight the vulnerability of FlexRay found in the experiments conducted on a real FlexRay network.
Journal Article

Data Privacy in the Emerging Connected Mobility Services: Architecture, Use Cases, Privacy Risks, and Countermeasures

2019-10-14
Abstract The rapid development of connected and automated vehicle technologies together with cloud-based mobility services is transforming the transportation industry. As a result, huge amounts of consumer data are being collected and utilized to provide personalized mobility services. Using big data poses serious challenges to data privacy. To that end, the risks of privacy leakage are amplified by data aggregations from multiple sources and exchanging data with third-party service providers, in face of the recent advances in data analytics. This article provides a review of the connected vehicle landscape from case studies, system characteristics, and dataflows. It also identifies potential challenges and countermeasures.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Sensors for Automated Road Vehicles

2018-10-18
EPR2018001
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the new generation of sensors designed for vehicles capable of automated driving. Four main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, specifying a standardized terminology and taxonomy to be used for discussing the sensors required by automated vehicles. Second, generating standardized tests and procedures for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensors. Third, creating a standardized set of tools and methods to ensure the security, robustness, and integrity of data collected by such sensors. The fourth issue, regarding the ownership and privacy of data collected by automated vehicle sensors, is considered only briefly here since its scope far exceeds the technical issues that are the primary focus of the present report. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Automated Vehicles

2020-02-28
EPR2020005
This SAE EDGE Research Report explores the many legal issues raised by the advent of automated vehicles. While promised to bring major changes to our lives, there are significant legal challenges that have to be overcome before they can see widespread use. A century’s worth of law and regulation were written with only human drivers in mind, meaning they have to be amended before machines can take the wheel. Everything from key federal safety regulations down to local parking laws will have to shift in the face of AVs. This report undertakes an examination of the AV laws of Nevada, California, Michigan, and Arizona, along with two failed federal AV bills, to better understand how lawmakers have approached the technology. States have traditionally regulated a great deal of what happens on the road, but does that still make sense in a world with AVs? Would the nascent AV industry be able to survive in a world with fifty potential sets of rules?
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Facing Automated Vehicles and Insurance

2020-08-05
EPR2020015
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report explores how the deployment of automated vehicles (AVs) will affect the insurance industry and the principles of liability that underly the structure of insurance in the US. As we trade human drivers for suites of sensors and computers, who (or what) is responsible when there is a crash? The owner of the vehicle? The automaker that built the vehicle? The programmer that wrote the code? AVs are complicated machines, which in turn means that assigning liability for their failures can be a complex calculation. Insurers have over 100 years of experience and data covering human drivers, but with only a few years’ worth of information on AVs (and only on experimental ones at that), how can they properly predict the true risks associated with their deployment? Likewise, without an understanding of the nature and risks of AVs, how can the government agencies that regulate the insurance industry provide proper oversight?
Technical Paper

Foreseeable Misuse in Automated Driving Vehicles - The Human Factor in Fatal Accidents of Complex Automation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0059
Today, highly automated driving is paving the road for full autonomy. Highly automated vehicles can monitor the environment and make decisions more accurately and faster than humans to create safer driving conditions while ultimately achieving full automation to relieve the driver completely from participating in driving. As much as this transition from advanced driving assistance systems to fully automated driving will create frontiers for re-designing the in-vehicle experience for customers, it will continue to pose significant challenges for the industry as it did in the past and does so today. As we transfer more responsibility, functionality and control from human to machine, technologies become more complex, less transparent and making constant safe-guarding a challenge. With automation, potential misuse and insufficient system safety design are important factors that can cause fatal accidents, such as in TESLA autopilot incident.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics in Automated Vehicle Data Sharing for Verification and Validation Purposes

2020-06-03
EPR2020007
Unsettled Topics in Automated Vehicle Data Sharing for Verification and Validation Purposes discusses the unsettled issue of sharing the terabytes of driving data generated by Automated Vehicles (AVs) on a daily basis. Perception engineers use these large datasets to analyze and model the automated driving systems (ADS) that will eventually be integrated into future “self-driving” vehicles. However, the current industry practices of collecting data by driving on public roads to understand real-world scenarios is not practical and will be unlikely to lead to safe deployment of this technology anytime soon. Estimates show that it could take 400 years for a fleet of 100 AVs to drive enough miles to prove that they are as safe as human drivers.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Development Ecosystem

2020-03-17
EPR2020004
With over 100 years of operation, the current automobile industry has settled into an equilibrium with the development of methodologies, regulations, and processes for improving safety. In addition, a nearly $2-trillion market operates in the automotive ecosystem with connections into fields ranging from insurance to advertising. Enabling this ecosystem is a well-honed, tiered supply chain and an established development environment. Autonomous vehicle (AV) technology is a leap forward for the existing automotive industry; now the automobile is expected to manage perception and decision-making tasks. The safety technologies associated with these tasks were presented in an earlier SAE EDGE™ Research Report, “Unsettled Technology Areas in Autonomous Vehicle Test and Validation.”
Standard

Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Cooperative Driving Automation for On-Road Motor Vehicles

2020-05-07
CURRENT
J3216_202005
This document describes machine-to-machine (M2M) communication to enable cooperation between two or more participating entities or communication devices possessed or controlled by those entities. The cooperation supports or enables performance of the dynamic driving task (DDT) for a subject vehicle with driving automation feature(s) engaged. Other participants may include other vehicles with driving automation feature(s) engaged, shared road users (e.g., drivers of manually operated vehicles or pedestrians or cyclists carrying personal devices), or road operators (e.g., those who maintain or operate traffic signals or workzones). Cooperative driving automation (CDA) aims to improve the safety and flow of traffic and/or facilitate road operations by supporting the movement of multiple vehicles in proximity to one another. This is accomplished, for example, by sharing information that can be used to influence (directly or indirectly) DDT performance by one or more nearby road users.
Best Practice

AVSC Best Practice for Describing an Operational Design Domain: Conceptual Framework and Lexicon

2020-04-15
CURRENT
AVSC00002202004
An ADS-operated vehicle’s operational design domain (ODD) is defined by the manufacturer based on numerous factors. Research is underway at other organizations to define and organize ODD elements into taxonomies and other relational constructs. In order to enhance collaboration and communication between manufacturers and developers and transportation authorities, common terms and consistent frameworks are needed. The conceptual framework presented by Automated Vehicle Safety Consortium establishes a lexicon that can be used consistently by ADS developers and manufacturers responsible for defining their ADS ODD. A common framework and lexicon will reduce confusion, align expectations, and therefore build public trust, acceptance, and confidence.
Magazine

MOMENTUM: FEBRUARY 2018

2018-02-01
The drive to success Gopher Motorsports at the University of Minnesota places special emphasis on reliability, with positive results ensuing. Technology designed to win École de technologie supérieure (ÉTS) student engineers developed an electronic continuously variable transmission that was the first of its kind used in Baja SAE competition. Big Data a focus for 2018 SAE President Mircea Gradu Velodyne CQO sees use of Big Data as a way to capitalize on multiple industry trends including vehicle electrification and automated vehicles.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Determining Appropriate Modeling Fidelity for Automated Driving Systems Simulation

2019-12-06
EPR2019007
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the challenges of achieving optimal model fidelity for developing, validating, and verifying vehicles capable of automated driving. Three main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, assuring that simulation models represent their real-world counterparts, how to quantify simulation model fidelity, and how to assess system risk. Second, developing a universal simulation model interface and language for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensors. Third, characterizing and determining the different requirements for sensor, vehicle, environment, and human driver models. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: November 2018

2018-11-01
Electrifying the two-wheeler Alta Motors, one of the newest electric motorcycle OEMs, is fueling zero-emission excitement with a passion for product. AV testing is for dummies Rapid development of automated vehicles is driving ATD innovations, as Humanetics' CEO explains. 2019 Yamaha Niken steers a radical path The world's first leaning three-wheel motorcycle is an expression not only of engineering prowess, but of a real passion for riding. Editorial Electrify the U.S. Postal Fleet!
Book

The Role of ISO 26262: Book 4 - Automated Vehicle Safety

2019-03-07
Safety has been ranked as the number one concern for the acceptance and adoption of automated vehicles since safety has driven some of the most complex requirements in the development of self-driving vehicles. Recent fatal accidents involving self-driving vehicles have uncovered issues in the way some automated vehicle companies approach the design, testing, verification, and validation of their products. Traditionally, automotive safety follows functional safety concepts as detailed in the standard ISO 26262. However, automated driving safety goes beyond this standard and includes other safety concepts such as safety of the intended functionality (SOTIF) and multi-agent safety. The Role of ISO 26262 addresses the concept of safety for self-driving vehicles through the inclusion of 10 recent and highly relevent SAE technical papers.
Book

Safety of the Intended Functionality: Book 3 - Automated Vehicle Safety

2019-03-07
Safety has been ranked as the number one concern for the acceptance and adoption of automated vehicles since safety has driven some of the most complex requirements in the development of self-driving vehicles. Recent fatal accidents involving self-driving vehicles have uncovered issues in the way some automated vehicle companies approach the design, testing, verification, and validation of their products. Traditionally, automotive safety follows functional safety concepts as detailed in the standard ISO 26262. However, automated driving safety goes beyond this standard and includes other safety concepts such as safety of the intended functionality (SOTIF) and multi-agent safety. Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF) addresses the concept of safety for self-driving vehicles through the inclusion of 10 recent and highly relevent SAE technical papers. Topics that these papers feature include the system engineering management approach and redundancy technical approach to safety.
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