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Journal Article

The Missing Link: Aircraft Cybersecurity at the Operational Level

2020-07-25
Abstract Aircraft cybersecurity efforts have tended to focus at the strategic or tactical levels without a clear connection between the two. ...CSSEP’s process model postulates that security is best achieved by a balance of cybersecurity, cyber resiliency, defensibility, and recoverability and that control is best established by developing security constraints versus attempting to find every vulnerability. ...CSSEP identifies the major functions needed to do effective aircraft cybersecurity and provides a flexible framework as the “missing link” to connect the strategic and tactical levels of aircraft cybersecurity.
Technical Paper

An Integrated View on Automotive SPICE, Functional Safety and Cyber-Security

2020-04-14
2020-01-0145
This increases the attractiveness of an attack on vehicles and thus introduces new risks for vehicle cybersecurity. Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. ...Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. Aware of this fact, the automotive industry has, therefore, recently taken multiple efforts in designing and producing safe and secure connected and automated vehicles. ...As the domain geared up for the cybersecurity challenges, they leveraged experiences from many other domains, but must face several unique challenges.
Technical Paper

Integrated Safety and Security Development in the Automotive Domain

2017-03-28
2017-01-1661
The recently released SAE J3061 guidebook for cyber-physical vehicle systems provides high-level principles for automotive organizations for identifying and assessing cybersecurity threats and for designing cybersecurity aware systems in close relation to the ISO 26262 standard for the functional safety of road vehicles. ...., infotainment, car-2-car or car-2-infrastructure communication) as well as new advances toward advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) or even autonomous driving functions make cybersecurity another key factor to be taken into account by vehicle suppliers and manufacturers. ...Although these can capitalize on experiences from many other domains, they still have to face several unique challenges when gearing up for specific cybersecurity challenges. A key challenge is related to the increasing interconnection of automotive systems with networks (such as Car2X).
Technical Paper

Secure Vehicular Communication Using Blockchain Technology

2020-04-14
2020-01-0722
Also, all the existing methods for vehicular communication rely on a centralized server which itself invite massive cyber-security threats. These threats and challenges can be addressed by using the Blockchain (BC) technology, where each transaction is logged in a decentralized immutable BC ledger.
Training / Education

Introduction to Highly Automated Vehicles

2020-12-07
Every year, the U.S. on average, experiences more than 34,000 traffic deaths and over 5 million vehicle crashes. While the trend in traffic deaths has been generally downward for the past decade, most of this reduction has been the result of optimizing passive occupant crash protection systems such as seatbelts and airbags. Highly automated vehicle's (HAV's) offer the potential to significantly reduce vehicle crashes by perceiving a dangerous situation before the crash has occurred and supporting the human driver with proactive warnings and in some cases active interventions to avoid or mitigate the crash.
Technical Paper

Safe and Secure Development: Challenges and Opportunities

2018-04-03
2018-01-0020
The ever-increasing complexity and connectivity of driver assist functions pose challenges for both Functional Safety and Cyber Security. Several of these challenges arise not only due to the new functionalities themselves but due to numerous interdependencies between safety and security. Safety and security goals can conflict, safety mechanisms might be intentionally triggered by attackers to impact functionality negatively, or mechanisms can compete for limited resources like processing power or memory to name just some conflict potentials. But there is also the potential for synergies, both in the implementation as well as during the development. For example, both disciplines require mechanisms to check data integrity, are concerned with freedom from interference and require architecture based analyses. So far there is no consensus in the industry on how to best deal with these interdependencies in automotive development projects.
Technical Paper

Research on CAN Network Security Aspects and Intrusion Detection Design

2017-09-23
2017-01-2007
With the rapid development of vehicle intelligent and networking technology, the IT security of automotive systems becomes an important area of research. In addition to the basic vehicle control, intelligent advanced driver assistance systems, infotainment systems will all exchange data with in-vehicle network. Unfortunately, current communication network protocols, including Controller Area Network (CAN), FlexRay, MOST, and LIN have no security services, such as authentication or encryption, etc. Therefore, the vehicle are unprotected against malicious attacks. Since CAN bus is actually the most widely used field bus for in-vehicle communications in current automobiles, the security aspects of CAN bus is focused on. Based on the analysis of the current research status of CAN bus network security, this paper summarizes the CAN bus potential security vulnerabilities and the attack means.
Journal Article

Assuring Vehicle Update Integrity Using Asymmetric Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Public Key Cryptography (PKC)

2020-08-24
Abstract Over the past forty years, the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) technology has grown in both sophistication and volume in the automotive sector, and modern vehicles may comprise hundreds of ECUs. ECUs typically communicate via a bus-based network architecture to collectively support a broad range of safety-critical capabilities, such as obstacle avoidance, lane management, and adaptive cruise control. However, this technology evolution has also brought about risks: if ECU firmware is compromised, then vehicle safety may be compromised. Recent experiments and demonstrations have shown that ECU firmware is not only poorly protected but also that compromised firmware may pose safety risks to occupants and bystanders.
Technical Paper

Securing the Secret Key

2019-01-16
2019-01-0097
Recent advances in automotive technologies have paved way to a new era of connectivity. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are getting deployed in automobiles; many companies are developing driverless cars; connected cars are no more a work of mere research. [1] Vehicle manufacturers are developing ways to interface mobile devices with vehicles. However, all these advances in technology has introduced security risks. Unlike traditional computing systems, the security risk of an automobile can be fatal and can result in loss of lives [2]. The in-vehicle network of an automobile was originally designed to operate in a closed environment and hence network security was not considered during its design [3]. Several studies have already shown that an in-vehicle network can be easily compromised and an intruder can take full control of the vehicle. Researchers are working on various ways to solve this problem. Securing the in-vehicle communication by encrypting the messages is one such way.
Magazine

MOMENTUM: FEBRUARY 2020

2020-02-01
Tweaking, tuning, and tinkering The importance of flight testing in design decisions. Engine switch propels UW - Platteville snowmobile team to new heights Along with a new engine, the team made other changes that helped it win first place in the Spark-Ignition Class at the 2019 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge. Another year, another successful Cornell Baja SAE team Cornell University was among only five teams to finish in the top 10 in each of 2019’s three Baja SAE competitions.
Magazine

MOMENTUM: APRIL 2020

2020-04-01
Focused on design For Missouri S&T Racing, knowing why a system was designed in a particular way is as important as knowing how it was designed. Taking the classroom to the racetrack Purdue University's Formula SAE team makes good racecars, even better engineers. Sticking to the schedule By strictly meeting deadlines, West Virginia University Institute of Technology team hopes to reach new heights in SAE Aero Design.
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2020

2020-08-06
Big future for e-axles, advanced motors Top transmission engineers claim driveline electrification will transform everything from all-wheel drive to Class 8 tractor-trailers. Big data's benefits keep a-comin' Gigabytes of data are being collected and increasingly mined to improve field operations, maintenance and even vehicle design. Transformative times Despite a challenging climate, technology development progresses - as does the sharing of innovative ideas - virtually. Editorial Zeroing in on zero emissions Softing envisions secure, reliable predictive maintenance Reconstructing accidents in the ADAS age Paving the way to improved truck fuel efficiency Nikola looks to accelerate production, hydrogen infrastructure Mecalac designs unique-pivoting swing loader Q&A' Horiba's Joshua Israel discusses complex regulatory landscape's impact on commercial-vehicle development and shift to electrification.
Technical Paper

Enabling Efficient Functional Safety Audits - The Missing Link between ISO 26262 and Automotive SPICE

2019-04-02
2019-01-0144
In the field of electric and electronic (E/E) design for the automotive industry, there are separate traditions related to functional safety and software quality assurance. Both relying on the evaluation of the processes used; Automotive SPICE provides detailed guidance on how to perform this evaluation whilst ISO 26262 does not and simply mention Automotive SPICE as one possible solution. ISO 26262 additionally requires for an evaluation of the functional safety achieved by the product and uses the process evaluation (or functional safety audit in ISO 26262 terms) to support the final functional safety assessment. The purpose is to evaluate the implementation of the necessary safety processes according to the claimed scope defined in the safety plan. Automotive SPICE does not make a distinction on whether the application of the software under evaluation is safety related or not.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: January/February 2020

2020-02-06
Heat seekers While engineers debate the use of thermal-imaging sensors for ADAS, their capability and value are being proven for AVs of all levels. EV battery-materials testing gets physical Reliable materials-testing methodologies are vital for progress in electric-vehicle battery development. A leader in the field explains. Engineered in plastic SPE's annual awards highlight new and interesting materials and their applications. Tremec's supercar DCT To polish the 2020 mid-engine Corvette's driving prowess, GM and Tremec engineers joined forces to create a new and better auto-mated transaxle.
Standard

Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Cooperative Driving Automation for On-Road Motor Vehicles

2020-05-07
CURRENT
J3216_202005
This document describes machine-to-machine (M2M) communication to enable cooperation between two or more participating entities or communication devices possessed or controlled by those entities. The cooperation supports or enables performance of the dynamic driving task (DDT) for a subject vehicle with driving automation feature(s) engaged. Other participants may include other vehicles with driving automation feature(s) engaged, shared road users (e.g., drivers of manually operated vehicles or pedestrians or cyclists carrying personal devices), or road operators (e.g., those who maintain or operate traffic signals or workzones). Cooperative driving automation (CDA) aims to improve the safety and flow of traffic and/or facilitate road operations by supporting the movement of multiple vehicles in proximity to one another. This is accomplished, for example, by sharing information that can be used to influence (directly or indirectly) DDT performance by one or more nearby road users.
Magazine

MOMENTUM: FEBRUARY 2017

2017-02-01
Formula ETS: a new beginning This year's Formula SAE car features a complete chassis redesign. Trimming processes for advanced steels Greater quality control improves automotive manufacturing trimming processes for high-strength steels, resulting in reduced levels of scrap. Getting on the right track SAE Collegiate Chapter involvement opens the door to invaluable experiences and beneficial networking opportunities.
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