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Technical Paper

Challenges in Integrating Cybersecurity into Existing Development Processes

2020-04-14
2020-01-0144
Strategies designed to deal with these challenges differ in the way in which added duties are assigned and cybersecurity topics are integrated into the already existing process steps. Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. ...Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. A cybersecurity development approach is frequently perceived as introducing impediments, that bear the risk of cybersecurity measures receiving a lower priority to reduce inconvenience. ...For an established development process and a team accustomed to this process, adding cybersecurity features to the product initially means inconvenience and reduced productivity without perceivable benefits.
Standard

Unmanned Systems (UxS) Control Segment (UCS) Architecture: Architecture Technical Governance

2020-08-12
CURRENT
AS6522A
This Technical Governance is part of the SAE UCS Architecture Library and is primarily concerned with the UCS Architecture Model (AS6518) starting at Revision A and its user extensions. Users of the Model may extend it in accordance with AS6513 to meet the needs of their UCS Products. UCS Products include software components, software configurations and systems that provide or consume UCS services. For further information, refer to AS6513 Revision A or later. Technical Governance is part of the UCS Architecture Framework. This framework governs the UCS views expressed as Packages and Diagrams in the UCS Architecture Model.
Standard

Service Specific Permissions and Security Guidelines for Connected Vehicle Applications

2020-02-05
CURRENT
J2945/5_202002
SAE is developing a number of standards, including the SAE J2945/x and SAE J3161/x series, that specify a set of applications using message sets from the SAE J2735 data dictionary. (“Application” is used here to mean “a collection of activities including interactions between different entities in the service of a collection of related goals and associated with a given IEEE Provider Service Identifier (PSID)”). Authenticity and integrity of the communications for these applications are ensured using digital signatures and IEEE 1609.2 digital certificates, which also indicate the permissions of the senders using Provider Service Identifiers (PSIDs) and Service Specific Permissions (SSPs). The PSID is a globally unique identifier associated with an application specification that unambiguously describes how to build interoperable instances of that application.
Training / Education

Intelligent Vehicles From Functional Framework to Vehicle Architecture

Considering the increasing demand for vehicle intelligence, more and more students, engineers and researchers are involved in this field. It can be challenging, however, to gain an understanding of the growing variety of intelligent vehicle technologies and how they must function together effectively as a system. This course provides an overview of state-of-the-art intelligent vehicles, presents a systematic framework for intelligent technologies and vehicle-level architecture, and introduces testing methodologies to evaluate individual and integrated intelligent functions.
Standard

Hardware Protected Security for Ground Vehicles

2020-02-10
CURRENT
J3101_202002
Access mechanisms to system data and/or control is a primary use case of the hardware protected security environment (hardware protected security environment) during different uses and stages of the system. The hardware protected security environment acts as a gatekeeper for these use cases and not necessarily as the executor of the function. This section is a generalization of such use cases in an attempt to extract common requirements for the hardware protected security environment that enable it to be a gatekeeper. Examples are: Creating a new key fob Re-flashing ECU firmware Reading/exporting PII out of the ECU Using a subscription-based feature Performing some service on an ECU Transferring ownership of the vehicle Some of these examples are discussed later in this section and some have detailed sections of their own. This list is by no means comprehensive.
Technical Paper

Scalable Decentralized Solution for Secure Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

2020-04-14
2020-01-0724
The automotive industry is set for a rapid transformation in the next few years in terms of communication. The kind of growth the automotive industry is poised for in fields of connected cars is both fascinating and alarming at the same time. The communication devices equipped to the cars and the data exchanges done between vehicles to vehicles are prone to a lot of cyber-related attacks. The signals that are sent using Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET) between vehicles can be eavesdropped by the attackers and it may be used for various attacks such as the man in the middle attack, DOS attack, Sybil attack, etc. These attacks can be prevented using the Blockchain technology, where each transaction is logged in a decentralized immutable Blockchain ledger. This provides authenticity and integrity to the signals. But the use of Blockchain Platforms such as Ethereum has various drawbacks like scalability which makes it infeasible for connected car system.
Book

The Car Hacker's Handbook: A Guide for the Penetration Tester

2016-03-01
Modern cars are more computerized than ever, with the aim to make driving more convenient. But vehicle technologies haven’t kept pace with today’s more hostile security environment, leaving millions vulnerable to attack. This handbook will give you a deeper understanding of the computer systems and embedded software in modern vehicles. It begins by examining vulnerabilities and providing detailed explanations of communications over the CAN bus and between devices and systems. With an understanding of a vehicle’s communication network, you’ll learn how to intercept data and perform specific hacks to track vehicles, unlock doors, glitch engines, flood communication, and more.
Technical Paper

Safety Development Trend of the Intelligent and Connected Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0085
Automotive safety is always the focus of consumers, the selling point of products, the focus of technology. In order to achieve automatic driving, interconnection with the outside world, human-automatic system interaction, the security connotation of intelligent and connected vehicles (ICV) changes: information security is the basis of its security. Functional safety ensures that the system is operating properly. Behavioral safety guarantees a secure interaction between people and vehicles. Passive security should not be weakened, but should be strengthened based on new constraints. In terms of information safety, the threshold for attacking cloud, pipe, and vehicle information should be raised to ensure that ICV system does not fail due to malicious attacks. The cloud is divided into three cloud platforms according to functions: ICVs private cloud, TSP cloud, public cloud.
Technical Paper

Selftrust - A Practical Approach for Trust Establishment

2020-04-14
2020-01-0720
In recent years, with increase in external connectivity (V2X, telematics, mobile projection, BYOD) the automobile is becoming a target of cyberattacks and intrusions. Any such intrusion reduces customer trust in connected cars and negatively impacts brand image (like the recent Jeep Cherokee hack). To protect against intrusion, several mechanisms are available. These range from a simple secure CAN to a specialized symbiote defense software. A few systems (e.g. V2X) implement detection of an intrusion (defined as a misbehaving entity). However, most of the mechanisms require a system-wide change which adds to the cost and negatively impacts the performance. In this paper, we are proposing a practical and scalable approach to intrusion detection. Some benefits of our approach include use of existing security mechanisms such as TrustZone® and watermarking with little or no impact on cost and performance. In addition, our approach is scalable and does not require any system-wide changes.
Journal Article

uACPC: Client-Initiated Privacy-Preserving ACPC Model

2020-07-27
Abstract With the adoption of Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) technology, security and privacy of vehicles are paramount. To avoid tracking while preserving vehicle/driver’s privacy, modern vehicular public key infrastructure provision vehicles with multiple short-term pseudonym certificates. However, provisioning a large number of pseudonym certificates can lead to an enormous growth of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) during its revocation process. One possible approach to avoid such CRL growth is by relying on activation code (AC)-based solutions. In such solutions, the vehicles are provisioned with batches of encrypted certificates, which are decrypted periodically via the ACs (broadcasted by the back-end system). When the system detects a revoked vehicle, it simply does not broadcast the respective vehicle’s AC. As a result, revoked vehicles do not receive their respective AC and are prevented from decrypting their certificates.
Journal Article

Improvement of the Resilience of a Cyber-Physical Remote Diagnostic Communication System against Cyber Attacks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0112
In the near future, vehicles will operate autonomously and communicate with their environment. This communication includes Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication, and comunication with cloud-based servers (V2C). To improve the resilience of remote diagnostic communication between a vehicle and external test equipment against cyberattacks, it is imperative to understand and analyze the functionality and vulnerability of each communication system component, including the wired and wireless communication channels. This paper serves as a continuation of the SAE Journal publication on measures to prevent unauthorized access to the in-vehicle E/E system [9], explains the components of a cyber-physical system (CPS) for remote diagnostic communication, analyzes their vulnerability against cyberattacks and explains measures to improve the resiliance.
Technical Paper

Megatrends - Connectivity and Automation Expanding the Boundaries of Personal Mobility: Technology Leadership Brief

2012-10-08
2012-01-9026
Personal mobility is being transformed by the advent of vehicle connectivity and automation. While significant individually, their interrelationships promise to bring unprecedented levels of traffic efficiency. Car-makers are talking about a crash-less society and transportation engineers are talking about the end of congestion - a tall order indeed: can this really be? In this decade we can expect to see the effects of sensor-based active safety systems bringing the crash rate down, as these technologies continue to expand across a wider range of vehicle models. Connectivity for infotainment purposes is already a major market driver, and control assist for convenience purposes is laying the groundwork for semi-automated and automated driving. Direct vehicle-vehicle connectivity opens up new capabilities. What is the government role in these developments - an essential player or a bystander? How can they enable or inhibit market activity in these domains?
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: October 6, 2015

2015-10-06
2016 Malibu sheds 300 lb, adds new hybrid system More wheelbase, style, fuel economy, and comfort aim to move GM's volume midsize sedan from the sidelines to the fast lane. Lighter, more powerful 2016 Honda Pilot The third-generation SUV gets a sleek new look and plenty of slick technology for enhanced performance and safety. 2016 Mazda MX-5 stays true to its roots Mazda engineers give the industry a lesson in getting more from less. 2016 Land Rover Discovery Sport spearheads more efficient Land Rovers JLR's space-efficient, flexible SUV moves to JLR's new Ingenium modular engines. Audi chooses high technology, cautious design evolution for new A4 In addition to lighter weight and significant improvements in efficiency, the new car employs plenty of technology and driver support.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: March 2019

2019-03-07
Editorial It's more than just a magazine The Navigator Needed: a step beyond STEM SAE AV Activities A listing of SAE International's autonomous vehicle-related offerings across the organization. Autonomy for the Masses Ford Autonomous Vehicles LLC aims to do for AVs what the Model T did for just about everyone. CEO Sherif Marakby explains. Speeding Thermal Analysis for Autonomous EVs Solving thermal challenges is vital to AEV development. Siemens PLM's new Simcenter integrated simulation package offers a high-fidelity, easy-to-use solution. New Mobility's Mega-Mappers Most believe ultrahigh-definition mapping is crucial to make high-level automated driving possible. Developing these maps is a huge undertaking-one that's enjoying a massive investment of money and talent. From a Blip to a Boom Automotive radar rides the 77-GHz technology wave toward greater capability and vehicle safety.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: May 2019

2019-05-02
Editorial AVs, data and 'surveillance capitalism' SAE AV Activities SAE launches Office of Automation The Navigator Lessons from the 737 Max-8 debacle Scorecard Waymo, GM and Ford pegged as autonomous leaders Designs to Dye for: Autonomy's New-Materials Revolution From pineapples to bacteria, Envisage's research is focused on new-mobility's 'inside' story. Dining on Data Processing, in real-time, the enormous data stream that's flowing through AVs is increasingly the job of NVIDIA's mighty GPUs. Danny Shapiro relishes the feast. New Performance Metrics for Lidar Frame-rate measurement is so yesterday.
Article

Europe’s blockchain-based Smart E-Mobility Challenge will conclude this May in Germany

2019-05-07
TIoTA, an open software consortium of over 50 members organized to support the creation of a secure, scalable, interoperable, and trusted IoT ecosystem, began the E-Mobility Challenge to link IoT devices with consumers and stakeholder companies such as operators and service, communication, and payment providers within the preexisting European electric vehicle ecosystem.
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