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Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0196
Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases.
Technical Paper

Adopting Aviation Safety Knowledge into the Discussions of Safe Implementation of Connected and Autonomous Road Vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0074
The development of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) is progressing fast. Yet, safety and standardization-related discussions are limited due to the recent nature of the sector. Despite the effort that is initiated to kick-start the study, awareness among practitioners is still low. Hence, further effort is required to stimulate this discussion. Among the available works on CAV safety, some of them take inspiration from the aviation sector that has strict safety regulations. The underlying reason is the experience that has been gained over the decades. However, the literature still lacks a thorough association between automation in aviation and the CAV from the safety perspective. As such, this paper motivates the adoption of safe-automation knowledge from aviation to facilitate safer CAV systems.
Technical Paper

Building Responsibility in AI: Transparent AI for Highly Automated Vehicle Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0195
Replacing a human driver is an extraordinarily complex task. While machine learning (ML) and its’ subset, deep learning (DL) are fueling breakthroughs in everything from consumer mobile applications to image and gesture recognition, significant challenges remain. The majority of artificial intelligence (AI) learning applications, particularly with respect to Highly Automated Vehicles (HAVs) and their ecosystem have remained opaque - genuine “black boxes.” Data is loaded into one side of the ML system and results come out the other, however, there is little to no understanding at how the decision was arrived at. To make these systems accurate, these AI systems require lots of data to crunch and the sheer computational complexity of building these DL based AI models also slows down the progress in accuracy and the practicality of deploying DL at scale.
Technical Paper

Case Study for Defining Security Goals and Requirements for Automotive Security Parts Using Threat Modeling

2018-04-03
2018-01-0014
Several external networks like telematics, and SOTA and many in-vehicle networks by gateways and domain controllers have been increasingly introduced. However, these trends may potentially make many critical data opened, attacked and modified by hackers. These days, vehicle security has been significantly required as these vehicle security threats are related to the human life like drivers and pedestrians. Threat modeling is process of secure software development lifecycle which is developed by Microsoft. It is a systematic approach for analyzing the potential threat in software and identifying the security risk associated with software. Through threat modeling, security risk is be mitigated and eliminated. In vehicle software System, one of vulnerability can affect critical problem about safety. An approach from experience and hacking cases is not enough for analyzing the potential threat and preparing new hacking attack.
Technical Paper

Experimental Setup Enabling Self-Confrontation Interviews for Modelling Naturalistic Driving Behavior

2019-04-02
2019-01-1082
Behavioral models of traffic actors have a potential of unlocking sophisticated safety features and mitigating several challenges of urban automated driving. Intuitively, volunteers driving on routes of daily commuting in their private vehicles are the preferred source of information to be captured by data collection system. Such dataset can then serve as a basis for identifying efficient methods of context representation and parameterization of behavioral models. This paper describes the experimental setup supporting the development of driver behavioral models within the SIMUSAFE project. In particular, the paper presents an IoT data acquisition and analysis infrastructure supporting self-confrontation interviews with drivers. The proposed retrofit system was installed in private vehicles of volunteers in two European cities. Wherever possible, the setup used open source software and electronic components available on consumer market.
Technical Paper

Foreseeable Misuse in Automated Driving Vehicles - The Human Factor in Fatal Accidents of Complex Automation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0059
Today, highly automated driving is paving the road for full autonomy. Highly automated vehicles can monitor the environment and make decisions more accurately and faster than humans to create safer driving conditions while ultimately achieving full automation to relieve the driver completely from participating in driving. As much as this transition from advanced driving assistance systems to fully automated driving will create frontiers for re-designing the in-vehicle experience for customers, it will continue to pose significant challenges for the industry as it did in the past and does so today. As we transfer more responsibility, functionality and control from human to machine, technologies become more complex, less transparent and making constant safe-guarding a challenge. With automation, potential misuse and insufficient system safety design are important factors that can cause fatal accidents, such as in TESLA autopilot incident.
Technical Paper

Hardware/Software Co-Design of an Automotive Embedded Firewall

2017-03-28
2017-01-1659
The automotive industry experiences a major change as vehicles are gradually becoming a part of the Internet. Security concepts based on the closed-world assumption cannot be deployed anymore due to a constantly changing adversary model. Automotive Ethernet as future in-vehicle network and a new E/E Architecture have different security requirements than Ethernet known from traditional IT and legacy systems. In order to achieve a high level of security, a new multi-layer approach in the vehicle which responds to special automotive requirements has to be introduced. One essential layer of this holistic security concept is to restrict non-authorized access by the deployment of embedded firewalls. This paper addresses the introduction of automotive firewalls into the next-generation domain architecture with a focus on partitioning of its features in hardware and software.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Vehicular Networks and its Main Security Issues

2014-04-01
2014-01-0336
Vehicular Network is an emerging and developing technology to improve traffic management and safety issues, and enable a wide range of value-added services such as collision warning/avoidance. Many applications have been designed to provide safety and comfort for passengers. This technology is a prolific area for attackers who will attempt to challenge the network with their malicious or rational attacks. In this paper we elaborate what a vehicular network is, different kinds of communication in this field, main mechanism and related parts and how vehicular networks work then we introduce some of its applications. After primary familiarity with this system we investigate to different type of attacker, more important security issues, How to secure vehicular networks (security requirements and some tools and methods to achieve secure vehicular networks), difficulties and providing viable security solutions, and at the end briefly explanation of related standards.
Technical Paper

Safety Development Trend of the Intelligent and Connected Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0085
Automotive safety is always the focus of consumers, the selling point of products, the focus of technology. In order to achieve automatic driving, interconnection with the outside world, human-automatic system interaction, the security connotation of intelligent and connected vehicles (ICV) changes: information security is the basis of its security. Functional safety ensures that the system is operating properly. Behavioral safety guarantees a secure interaction between people and vehicles. Passive security should not be weakened, but should be strengthened based on new constraints. In terms of information safety, the threshold for attacking cloud, pipe, and vehicle information should be raised to ensure that ICV system does not fail due to malicious attacks. The cloud is divided into three cloud platforms according to functions: ICVs private cloud, TSP cloud, public cloud.
Technical Paper

The Autonomous Vehicle Challenges for Emergent Market

2017-11-07
2017-36-0436
Technological advances in both hardware (Nano-electronics) and software (artificial intelligence) are increasingly influencing our lives on equipment and devices that surrounds us and more recently our means of locomotion. The autonomous vehicles, which previously appeared only in movie scenes, can already be found in our environment, such as ships, cars, trucks, tractors and aero engines. Considering the autonomous vehicles, its launching is much closer than we could imagine, since many companies signalize having the conditions to launch them in a large scale within 2018 year. The insertion of this type of technology opens a range of advances related to vehicles and the environment in which it is inserted. The communication between the vehicles, roads and people can be highlighted. These advances reveal a series of benefits to the customer such as free time during the route, higher safety, etc.
Technical Paper

Total Vehicle Integration and Design - Journey to Electrification, Digitization and Connectivity Leading to Autonomy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0003
Total vehicle integration and design is a complex process and deals with interactions of many subsystems. The subsystems in a vehicle not only have to perform their role but interfaces between the subsystems must be well understood to design for all the interactions. The global automotive market is following electrification, digitization and connectivity trends that eventually lead to Autonomy. Therefore, the vehicle integration design process needs to include these new use cases of these trends. The process starts with establishing the top-level vehicle metrics relative to key deliverables of the vehicle ranging from providing comfortable environment to the driver to good performance. The process of establishing vehicle level metrics is not trivial and quite often must be derived from the customer verbatim. Frequently, there are conflicting requirements and priority must be given to one over another.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Facing Automated Vehicles and Insurance

2020-08-05
EPR2020015
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report explores how the deployment of automated vehicles (AVs) will affect the insurance industry and the principles of liability that underly the structure of insurance in the US. As we trade human drivers for suites of sensors and computers, who (or what) is responsible when there is a crash? The owner of the vehicle? The automaker that built it? The programmer that wrote the code? Insurers have over 100 years of experience and data covering human drivers, but with only a few years’ worth of information on AVs – how can they properly predict the true risks associated with their deployment? Without an understanding of the nature and risks of AVs, how can the government agencies that regulate the insurance industry provide proper oversight? Do the challenges AVs present require a total reworking of our insurance and liability systems, or can our current structures be adapted to fit them with minor modifications?
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Determining Appropriate Modeling Fidelity for Automated Driving Systems Simulation

2019-12-06
EPR2019007
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the challenges of achieving optimal model fidelity for developing, validating, and verifying vehicles capable of automated driving. Three main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, assuring that simulation models represent their real-world counterparts, how to quantify simulation model fidelity, and how to assess system risk. Second, developing a universal simulation model interface and language for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensors. Third, characterizing and determining the different requirements for sensor, vehicle, environment, and human driver models. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Airworthiness Cybersecurity Regulation

2020-08-31
EPR2020013
Its extensive application of data networks, including enhanced external digital communication, forced the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), for the first time, to set “Special Conditions” for cybersecurity. In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. ...In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. The resulting International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) resolutions, US and European Union (EU) legislations, FAA and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulations, and the DO-326/ED-202 set of standards are already the de-facto, and soon becoming the official, standards for legislation, regulation, and best practices, with the FAA already mandating it to a constantly growing extent for a few years now—and EASA adopting the set in its entirety in July 2020.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning User Experience and Acceptance of Automated Vehicles

2020-06-29
EPR2020012
This SAE EDGE Research Report addresses the unsettled topic of user acceptance of automated driving, analyzing the user experience for a more intuitive and safe driving experience. Unsettled Topics Concerning User Experience and Acceptance of Automated Vehicles examines the requirements for safer driver/user engagement with driving for the various SAE automation levels. It analyzes consumer sentiment toward automated driving - both consumer excitement about the perceived benefits and dislikes or concerns about the technology. The findings from surveys about drivers' experience with advanced driving assistance technologies and its application to automated driving is also brought to the surface of the discussion, together with driver profiles observed during a user-centric experience in an immersive automated driving cockpit.
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