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Technical Paper

A Blockchain-Backed Database for Qualified Parts

Certain standard parts in the aerospace industry require qualification as a prerequisite to manufacturing, signifying that the manufacturer’s capacity to produce parts consistent with the performance specifications has been audited by a neutral third-party auditor, key customer, and/or group of customers. In at least some cases, a certifying authority provides manufacturers with certificates of qualification which they can then present to prospective customers, and/or lists qualified suppliers in a Qualified Parts List or Qualified Supplier List available from that qualification authority. If this list is in an infrequently updated and/or inconsistently styled format as might be found in a print or PDF document, potential customers wishing to integrate qualification information into their supplier tracking systems must use a potentially error-prone manual process that could lead to later reliance on out-of-date or even forged data.
Technical Paper

A Controller Area Network Bus Identity Authentication Method Based on Hash Algorithm

With the development of vehicle intelligence and the Internet of Vehicles, how to protect the safety of the vehicle network system has become a focus issue that needs to be solved urgently. The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is currently a very widely used vehicle-mounted bus, and its security largely determines the degree of vehicle-mounted information security. The CAN bus lacks adequate protection mechanisms and is vulnerable to external attacks such as replay attacks, modifying attacks, and so on. On the basis of the existing work, this paper proposes an authentication method that combines Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC)-SHA256 and Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) algorithms. This method is based on dynamic identity authentication in challenge/response made and combined with the characteristics of the CAN bus itself as it achieves the identity authentication between the gateway and multiple electronic control units (ECUs).
Technical Paper

A Safety and Security Testbed for Assured Autonomy in Vehicles

Connectivity and autonomy in vehicles promise improved efficiency, safety and comfort. The increasing use of embedded systems and the cyber element bring with them many challenges regarding cyberattacks which can seriously compromise driver and passenger safety. Beyond penetration testing, assessment of the security vulnerabilities of a component must be done through the design phase of its life cycle. This paper describes the development of a benchtop testbed which allows for the assurance of safety and security of components with all capabilities from Model-in-loop to Software-in-loop to Hardware-in-loop testing. Environment simulation is obtained using the AV simulator, CARLA which provides realistic scenarios and sensor information such as Radar, Lidar etc. MATLAB runs the vehicle, powertrain and control models of the vehicle allowing for the implementation and testing of customized models and algorithms.
Technical Paper

An Integrated View on Automotive SPICE, Functional Safety and Cyber-Security

This increases the attractiveness of an attack on vehicles and thus introduces new risks for vehicle cybersecurity. Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. ...Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. Aware of this fact, the automotive industry has, therefore, recently taken multiple efforts in designing and producing safe and secure connected and automated vehicles. ...As the domain geared up for the cybersecurity challenges, they leveraged experiences from many other domains, but must face several unique challenges.
Technical Paper

Analyze This! Sound Static Analysis for Integration Verification of Large-Scale Automotive Software

Safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements. One such requirement, imposed by all contemporary safety standards, is that no critical run-time errors must occur. Runtime errors can be caused by undefined or unspecified behavior of the programming language; examples are buffer overflows or data races. They may cause erroneous or erratic behavior, induce system failures, and constitute security vulnerabilities. A sound static analyzer reports all such defects in the code, or proves their absence. Sound static program analysis is a verification technique recommended by ISO/FDIS 26262 for software unit verification and for the verification of software integration. In this article we propose an analysis methodology that has been implemented with the static analyzer Astrée. It supports quick turn-around times and gives highly precise whole-program results.
Technical Paper

CAN Crypto FPGA Chip to Secure Data Transmitted Through CAN FD Bus Using AES-128 and SHA-1 Algorithms with A Symmetric Key

Robert Bosch GmBH proposed in 2012 a new version of communication protocol named as Controller area network with Flexible Data-Rate (CANFD), that supports data frames up to 64 bytes compared to 8 bytes of CAN. With limited data frame size of CAN message, and it is impossible to be encrypted and secured. With this new feature of CAN FD, we propose a hardware design - CAN crypto FPGA chip to secure data transmitted through CAN FD bus by using AES-128 and SHA-1 algorithms with a symmetric key. AES-128 algorithm will provide confidentiality of CAN message and SHA-1 algorithm with a symmetric key (HMAC) will provide integrity and authentication of CAN message. The design has been modeled and verified by using Verilog HDL – a hardware description language, and implemented successfully into Xilinx FPGA chip by using simulation tool ISE (Xilinx).
Technical Paper

Case Study for Defining Security Goals and Requirements for Automotive Security Parts Using Threat Modeling

Several external networks like telematics, and SOTA and many in-vehicle networks by gateways and domain controllers have been increasingly introduced. However, these trends may potentially make many critical data opened, attacked and modified by hackers. These days, vehicle security has been significantly required as these vehicle security threats are related to the human life like drivers and pedestrians. Threat modeling is process of secure software development lifecycle which is developed by Microsoft. It is a systematic approach for analyzing the potential threat in software and identifying the security risk associated with software. Through threat modeling, security risk is be mitigated and eliminated. In vehicle software System, one of vulnerability can affect critical problem about safety. An approach from experience and hacking cases is not enough for analyzing the potential threat and preparing new hacking attack.
Technical Paper

Connected Vehicles - A Testing Approach and Methodology

With the introduction of Connected Vehicles, it is possible to extend the limited horizon of vehicles on the road by collective perceptions, where vehicles periodically share their information with other vehicles and servers using cloud. Nevertheless, by the time the connected vehicle spread expands, it is critical to understand the validation techniques which can be used to ensure a flawless transfer of data and connectivity. Connected vehicles are mainly characterized by the smartphone application which is provided to the end customers to access the connectivity features in the vehicle. The end result which is delivered to the customer is through the integrated telematics unit in the vehicle which communicates through a communication layer with the cloud platform. The cloud server in turn interacts with the final application layer of the mobile application given to the customer.
Technical Paper

Cyber-security for Engine ECUs: Past, Present and Future

In this paper, we outline past, present and future applications of automotive security for engine ECUs. Electronic immobilizers and anti-tuning countermeasures have been used for several years. Recently, OEMs and suppliers are facing more and more powerful attackers, and as a result, have introduced stronger countermeasures based on hardware security. Finally, with the advent of connected cars, it is expected that many things that currently require a physical connection will be done remotely in a near future. This includes remote diagnostics, reprogramming and engine calibration.
Technical Paper

Designing a Next Generation Trailer Braking System

Passenger vehicles have made astounding technological leaps in recent years. Unfortunately, little of that progress has trickled down to other segments of the transportation industry leaving opportunities for massive gains in safety and performance. In particular, the electric drum brakes on most consumer trailers differ little from those on trailers over 70 years ago. Careful examination of current production passenger vehicle hardware and trailering provided the opportunity to produce a design and test vehicle for a plausible, practical, and performant trailer braking system for the future. This study equips the trailer with high control frequency antilock braking and dynamic torque distribution through use of passenger vehicle grade apply hardware.
Technical Paper

Dyno-in-the-Loop: An Innovative Hardware-in-the-Loop Development and Testing Platform for Emerging Mobility Technologies

Today’s transportation is quickly transforming with the nascent advent of connectivity, automation, shared-mobility, and electrification. These technologies will not only affect our safety and mobility, but also our energy consumption, and environment. As a result, it is of unprecedented importance to understand the overall system impacts due to the introduction of these emerging technologies and concepts. Existing modeling tools are not able to effectively capture the implications of these technologies, not to mention accurately and reliably evaluating their effectiveness with a reasonable scope. To address these gaps, a dynamometer-in-the-loop (DiL) development and testing approach is proposed which integrates test vehicle(s), chassis dynamometer, and high fidelity traffic simulation tools, in order to achieve a balance between the model accuracy and scalability of environmental analysis for the next generation of transportation systems.
Technical Paper

Enabling Efficient Functional Safety Audits - The Missing Link between ISO 26262 and Automotive SPICE

In the field of electric and electronic (E/E) design for the automotive industry, there are separate traditions related to functional safety and software quality assurance. Both relying on the evaluation of the processes used; Automotive SPICE provides detailed guidance on how to perform this evaluation whilst ISO 26262 does not and simply mention Automotive SPICE as one possible solution. ISO 26262 additionally requires for an evaluation of the functional safety achieved by the product and uses the process evaluation (or functional safety audit in ISO 26262 terms) to support the final functional safety assessment. The purpose is to evaluate the implementation of the necessary safety processes according to the claimed scope defined in the safety plan. Automotive SPICE does not make a distinction on whether the application of the software under evaluation is safety related or not.
Technical Paper

Hardware/Software Co-Design of an Automotive Embedded Firewall

The automotive industry experiences a major change as vehicles are gradually becoming a part of the Internet. Security concepts based on the closed-world assumption cannot be deployed anymore due to a constantly changing adversary model. Automotive Ethernet as future in-vehicle network and a new E/E Architecture have different security requirements than Ethernet known from traditional IT and legacy systems. In order to achieve a high level of security, a new multi-layer approach in the vehicle which responds to special automotive requirements has to be introduced. One essential layer of this holistic security concept is to restrict non-authorized access by the deployment of embedded firewalls. This paper addresses the introduction of automotive firewalls into the next-generation domain architecture with a focus on partitioning of its features in hardware and software.
Technical Paper

High Performance Processor Architecture for Automotive Large Scaled Integrated Systems within the European Processor Initiative Research Project

Autonomous driving systems and connected mobility are the next big developments for the car manufacturers and their suppliers during the next decade. To achieve the high computing power needs and fulfill new upcoming requirements due to functional safety and security, heterogeneous processor architectures with a mixture of different core architectures and hardware accelerators are necessary. To tackle this new type of hardware complexity and nevertheless stay within monetary constraints, high performance computers, inspired by state of the art data center hardware, could be adapted in order to fulfill automotive quality requirements. The European Processor Initiative (EPI) research project tries to come along with that challenge for next generation semiconductors. To be as close as possible to series development needs for the next upcoming car generations, we present a hybrid semiconductor system-on-chip architecture for automotive.
Technical Paper

Hypervisor Implementation in Vehicle Networks

The hypervisor offers many benefits to the vehicle architecture, both operationally and with cybersecurity. The proposed mitigant provides the structure to partition the various VMs. This allows for the different functions to be managed within their own distinct VM. ...While the cybersecurity applications are numerous, there are also the operational benefits. The hypervisor is designed to not only manage the VMs, but also to increase the efficiency of these via resource management.
Journal Article

Implementation Methodologies for Simulation as a Service (SaaS) to Develop ADAS Applications

Over the years, the complexity of autonomous vehicle development (and concurrently the verification and validation) has grown tremendously in terms of component-, subsystem- and system-level interactions between autonomy and the human users. Simulation-based testing holds significant promise in helping to identify both problematic interactions between component-, subsystem-, and system-levels as well as overcoming delays typically introduced by the default full-scale on-road testing. Software in Loop (SiL) simulation is utilized as an intermediate step towards software deployment for autonomous vehicles (AV) to make them reliable. SiL efforts can help reduce the resources required for successful deployment by helping to validate the software for millions of road miles. A key enabler for accelerating SiL processes is the ability to use Simulation as a Service (SaaS) rather than just isolated instances of software.
Technical Paper

Improved Run Time Error Analysis Using Formal Methods for Automotive Software - Improvement of Quality, Cost Effectiveness and Efforts to Proactive Defects Check

Quality is what determines success or failure. If products are not error-free, reliable and robust, customers will be put off. Criticism is inevitable. Bosch is focusing on this theme and taking appropriate action to improve the quality of automotive software. Runtime errors most often refer to issues that appear during the execution of a program like buffer overflow issues and pointer access out of bounds. They are important to detect as they may cause critical safety, security or business operation concerns. They can potentially cause the critical systems of high-integrity applications to fail, leading to disastrous results and they have been blamed as the root cause of system failure in high-profile examples in automotive software. This has resulted in identifying run-time error detection as critical field of interest where safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements by all contemporary safety standards where no run-time errors must occur.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Vehicle Monitoring for Safety and Security

The caveat to these additional capabilities is issues like cybersecurity, complexity, etc. This paper is an exploration into FuSa and CAVs and will present a systematic approach to understand challenges and propose potential framework, Intelligent Vehicle Monitoring for Safety and Security (IVMSS) to handle faults/malfunctions in CAVs, and specifically autonomous systems.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Vehicular Networks and its Main Security Issues

Vehicular Network is an emerging and developing technology to improve traffic management and safety issues, and enable a wide range of value-added services such as collision warning/avoidance. Many applications have been designed to provide safety and comfort for passengers. This technology is a prolific area for attackers who will attempt to challenge the network with their malicious or rational attacks. In this paper we elaborate what a vehicular network is, different kinds of communication in this field, main mechanism and related parts and how vehicular networks work then we introduce some of its applications. After primary familiarity with this system we investigate to different type of attacker, more important security issues, How to secure vehicular networks (security requirements and some tools and methods to achieve secure vehicular networks), difficulties and providing viable security solutions, and at the end briefly explanation of related standards.