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Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0196
Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases.
Technical Paper

Access Control Requirements for Autonomous Robotic Fleets

2023-04-11
2023-01-0104
Access control enforces security policies for controlling critical resources. For V2X (Vehicle to Everything) autonomous military vehicle fleets, network middleware systems such as ROS (Robotic Operating System) expose system resources through networked publisher/subscriber and client/server paradigms. Without proper access control, these systems are vulnerable to attacks from compromised network nodes, which may perform data poisoning attacks, flood packets on a network, or attempt to gain lateral control of other resources. Access control for robotic middleware systems has been investigated in both ROS1 and ROS2. Still, these implementations do not have mechanisms for evaluating a policy's consistency and completeness or writing expressive policies for distributed fleets. We explore an RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) mechanism layered onto ROS environments that uses local permission caches with precomputed truth tables for fast policy evaluation.
Technical Paper

Applying Concolic Testing to the Automotive Domain

2024-04-09
2024-01-2802
Symbolic code execution is a powerful cybersecurity testing approach that facilitates the systematic exploration of all paths within a program to uncover previously unknown cybersecurity vulnerabilities. ...Symbolic code execution is a powerful cybersecurity testing approach that facilitates the systematic exploration of all paths within a program to uncover previously unknown cybersecurity vulnerabilities. This is achieved through a Satisfiability Modulo Theory (SMT) solver, which operates on symbolic values for program inputs instead of using their concrete counterparts.
Technical Paper

Attacking Ground Vehicles with Ransomware: Watch the Horizon

2022-03-29
2022-01-0358
Ransomware is not a new method of malware infection. This historically had been experienced in the enterprise in nearly every industry. This has been especially problematic in the medical and manufacturing fields. As the attackers saturate the specifically targeted industries, the attackers will expand their target industries. One of these which has not been significantly explored by the ransomware groups are the embedded systems and automobile environment. This set of targets is massive and provides for a vast attack potential. While this has not experienced this attack methodology at length, the research and efforts are creeping towards this as a natural extension of the business. The research focusses on the history of ransomware, uses in the enterprise, possible attack vectors with ground vehicles, and defenses to be explored and implemented to secure automobiles, fleets, and the industries.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Integrating Cybersecurity into Existing Development Processes

2020-04-14
2020-01-0144
Strategies designed to deal with these challenges differ in the way in which added duties are assigned and cybersecurity topics are integrated into the already existing process steps. Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. ...Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. A cybersecurity development approach is frequently perceived as introducing impediments, that bear the risk of cybersecurity measures receiving a lower priority to reduce inconvenience. ...For an established development process and a team accustomed to this process, adding cybersecurity features to the product initially means inconvenience and reduced productivity without perceivable benefits.
Technical Paper

Common Vulnerability Considerations as an Integral Part of the Automotive Cybersecurity Engineering Process

2022-10-05
2022-28-0304
To build secure systems of road vehicles, the cybersecurity engineering standard ISO21434[11] suggests the evaluation of vulnerabilities throughout engineering process, such as attack path analysis, system requirement stage, software architecture, design, and implementation and testing phases. ...With my analysis and practices, it is appropriate to include the common vulnerabilities that ought to be an integral part of the automotive cybersecurity engineering process. In this paper, the author would like to provide a list of vulnerabilities that might be a suggestion for threat analysis and risk assessment and propose two solutions that may be adopted directly in the V-model for security-relevant software development.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0866
This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
Technical Paper

Consequence-Driven Cybersecurity for High-Power Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

2023-04-11
2023-01-0047
Cybersecurity of high-power charging infrastructure for electric vehicles (EVs) is critical to the safety, reliability, and consumer confidence in this publicly accessible technology. ...Cybersecurity of high-power charging infrastructure for electric vehicles (EVs) is critical to the safety, reliability, and consumer confidence in this publicly accessible technology. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in high-power EV charging infrastructure may also present risks to broader transportation and energy-infrastructure systems. ...This paper details a methodology used to analyze and prioritize high-consequence events that could result from cybersecurity sabotage to high-power charging infrastructure. The highest prioritized events are evaluated under laboratory conditions for the severity of impact and the complexity of cybersecurity manipulation.
Technical Paper

Considerations for Requirements and Specifications of a Digital Thread in Aircraft Data Life Cycle Management

2024-03-05
2024-01-1946
The aircraft lifecycle involves thousands of transactions and an enormous amount of data being exchanged across the stakeholders in the aircraft ecosystem. This data pertains to various aircraft life cycle stages such as design, manufacturing, certification, operations, maintenance, and disposal of the aircraft. All participants in the aerospace ecosystem want to leverage the data to deliver insight and add value to their customers through existing and new services while protecting their own intellectual property. The exchange of data between stakeholders in the ecosystem is involved and growing exponentially. This necessitates the need for standards on data interoperability to support efficient maintenance, logistics, operations, and design improvements for both commercial and military aircraft ecosystems. A digital thread defines an approach and a system which connects the data flows and represents a holistic view of an asset data across its lifecycle.
Technical Paper

Cyber Security in the Automotive Domain – An Overview

2017-03-28
2017-01-1652
Driven by the growing internet and remote connectivity of automobiles, combined with the emerging trend to automated driving, the importance of security for automotive systems is massively increasing. Although cyber security is a common part of daily routines in the traditional IT domain, necessary security mechanisms are not yet widely applied in the vehicles. At first glance, this may not appear to be a problem as there are lots of solutions from other domains, which potentially could be re-used. But substantial differences compared to an automotive environment have to be taken into account, drastically reducing the possibilities for simple reuse. Our contribution is to address automotive electronics engineers who are confronted with security requirements. Therefore, it will firstly provide some basic knowledge about IT security and subsequently present a selection of automotive specific security use cases.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity by Agile Design

2023-04-11
2023-01-0035
ISO/SAE 21434 [1] Final International Standard was released September 2021 to great fanfare and is the most prominent standard in Automotive Cybersecurity. As members of the Joint Working Group (JWG) the authors spent 5 years developing the 84 pages of precise wording acceptable to hundreds of contributors. ...The application to Agile may require interpreting the standard from another angle, which could involve reordering the sequence of activities and work products, breaking down the acceptable criteria of some work products to allow rapid iterations, and verifications of meta data or intermediate work products. In cybersecurity engineering, Agile has its unique strength compared to the V-model method, as its cyclical nature is better aligned with best practices for Cybersecurity Frameworks. ...In cybersecurity engineering, Agile has its unique strength compared to the V-model method, as its cyclical nature is better aligned with best practices for Cybersecurity Frameworks.
Technical Paper

Deep Learning Based Automotive Requirements Analysis

2023-04-11
2023-01-0864
Automotive system functionalities spread over a wide range of sub-domains ranging from non-driving related components to complex autonomous driving related components. The requirements to design and develop these components span across software, hardware, firmware, etc. elements. The successful development of these components to achieve the needs from the stockholders requires accurate understanding and traceability of the requirements of these component systems. The high-level customer requirements transformation into low level granularity requires an efficient requirement engineer. The manual understanding of the customer requirements from the requirement documents are influenced by the context and the knowledge gap of the requirement engineer in understanding and transforming the requirements.
Technical Paper

Deep Learning Based Real Time Vulnerability Fixes Verification Mechanism for Automotive Firmware/Software

2021-04-06
2021-01-0183
Software vulnerability management is one of the most critical and crucial security techniques, which analyzes the automotive software/firmware across the digital cockpit, ADAS, V2X, etc. domains for vulnerabilities, and provides security patches for the concerned Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE). The process of automotive SW/FW vulnerability management system between the OEMs and vendors happen through a channel of fixing a certain number of vulnerabilities by 1st tier supplier which needs to be verified in front of OEMs for the fixed number and type of patches in there deliverable SW/FW. The gap of verification between for the fixed patches between the OEMs and 1st tier supplier requires a reliable human independent intelligent technique to have a trustworthiness of verification.
Technical Paper

Enabling the security of global time in software-defined vehicles (SGTS, MACsec)

2024-07-02
2024-01-2978
., driver assistance functions, intrusion detection system, vehicle diagnostics, external device authentication during vehicle diagnostics, vehicle-to-grid and so on). The cybersecurity attacks targeting the global time result in false time, accuracy degradation, and denial of service as stated in IETF RFC 7384.
Journal Article

Ensuring Fuel Economy Performance of Commercial Vehicle Fleets Using Blockchain Technology

2019-04-02
2019-01-1078
In the past, research on blockchain technology has addressed security and privacy concerns within intelligent transportation systems for critical V2I and V2V communications that form the backbone of Internet of Vehicles. Within trucking industry, a recent trend has been observed towards the use of blockchain technology for operations. Industry stakeholders are particularly looking forward to refining status quo contract management and vehicle maintenance processes through blockchains. However, the use of blockchain technology for enhancing vehicle performance in fleets, especially while considering the fact that modern-day intelligent vehicles are prone to cyber security threats, is an area that has attracted less attention. In this paper, we demonstrate a case study that makes use of blockchains to securely optimize the fuel economy of fleets that do package pickup and delivery (P&D) in urban areas.
Technical Paper

Functional Verification and Validation of Secure Controller Area Network (CAN) Communication

2022-03-29
2022-01-0110
In agriculture industry, increasing use of Vehicle Internet of Things (IoT), telematics and emerging technologies are resulting in smarter machines with connected solutions. Inter and Intra Communication with vehicle to vehicle and inside vehicle - Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to ECU or ECU (Electronic Control Unit) to sensor, requirement for flow of data increased in-turn resulting in increased need for secure communication. In this paper, we focus on functional verification and validation of secure Controller Area Network (CAN) for intra vehicular communication to establish confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, and freshness of data, supporting safety, advanced automation, protection of sensitive data and IP (Intellectual Property) protection. Network security algorithms and software security processes are the layers supporting to achieve our cause.
Technical Paper

Hardware-Based Cyber Security for Connected Vehicles

2023-04-11
2023-01-0038
There continues to be massive advancements in modern connected vehicles and with these advancements, connectivity continues to rapidly become more integral to the way these vehicles are designed and operated. Vehicle connectivity was originally introduced for the purpose of providing software updates to the vehicle’s main system software, and we have seen the adoption of Over The Air updates (OTA) become mainstream with most OEMs. The exploitation of this connectivity is far more reaching than just basic software updates. In the latest vehicles it is possible to update software not just on the main vehicle systems, but to potentially update embedded software in all smart ECUs within the vehicle. Only using the connectivity to push data to the vehicle is not making full use of the potential of this increased connectivity. Being able to collect vehicle data for offline analysis and processing also brings huge benefits to the use of this technology.
Research Report

Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on Grid Energy Buffering

2022-09-26
EPR2022022
Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on Grid Energy Buffering discusses the unsettled issues and requirements needed to realize the potential of EV batteries for demand response and grid services, such as improved battery management, control strategies, and enhanced cybersecurity. Hybrid and fuel cell EVs have significant potential to act as “peakers” for longer duration buffering, and this approach has the potential to provide all the long-term energy buffering required by a VRE-intensive grid.
Technical Paper

Mechanism for Runtime Kernel Integrity Check without Additional IP and without TEE for Low/Mid Automotive Segments

2022-03-29
2022-01-0126
Vehicles have more connectivity options now-a-days and these increasing connection options are giving more chances for an intruder to exploit the system. So, the vehicle manufacturers need to make the ECU in the vehicle more secure. To make the system secure, the embedded system must secure all the assets in the system. Examples of assets are Software, Kernel or Operating system, cryptographic Keys, Passwords, user data, etc. In this, securing the Kernel is extremely important as an intruder can even exploit the operating system characteristics just by changing the kernel code without introducing a trojan in the system. Also, the Kernel is the one entity that manages all permissions, so, if the kernel is hacked, these permissions also get compromised. The proposed approach is to make the kernel secure by doing the integrity check periodically of the kernel code loaded into the main memory of the system.
Technical Paper

Research on the Development Path and Policy Recommendations of Vehicle Infrastructure Cooperation

2022-12-22
2022-01-7065
By looking into the vehicle-infrastructure cooperation (VIC) which is oriented towards intelligent, networked and integrated development, this paper analyzes and proposes the essence and development direction of Intelligent Vehicle Infrastructure Cooperation Systems (I-VICS). With an in-depth analysis of technologies of core importance to VIC and influence factors that constrain VIC development as a whole, the paper comes up with a technological route for VIC, and identifies a direction for vehicle-infrastructure cooperative development that progresses from primary to intermediate cooperation, then to advanced cooperation, and finally to full-fledged cooperation. Policy recommendations aiming at strengthening top-level design, building an integrated vehicle-infrastructure-cloud platform, expediting independence of key techs, building robust standards and regulations for VIC, enhancing workforce development as well as greater efforts at market promotion are put forward.
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