Abstract Identity-Anonymized CAN (IA-CAN) protocol is a secure CAN protocol, which provides the sender authentication by inserting a secret sequence of anonymous IDs (A-IDs) shared among the communication nodes. To prevent malicious attacks from the IA-CAN protocol, a secure and robust system error recovery mechanism is required. This article presents a central management method of IA-CAN, named the IA-CAN with a global A-ID, where a gateway plays a central role in the session initiation and system error recovery. Each ECU self-diagnoses the system errors, and (if an error happens) it automatically resynchronizes its A-ID generation by acquiring the recovery information from the gateway. We prototype both a hardware version of an IA-CAN controller and a system for the IA-CAN with a global A-ID using the controller to verify our concept.
Abstract In the automotive domain, the overall complexity of technical components has increased enormously. Formerly isolated, purely mechanical cars are now a multitude of cyber-physical systems that are continuously interacting with other IT systems, for example, with the smartphone of their driver or the backend servers of the car manufacturer. This has huge security implications as demonstrated by several recent research papers that document attacks endangering the safety of the car. However, there is, to the best of our knowledge, no holistic overview or structured description of the complex automotive domain. Without such a big picture, distinct security research remains isolated and is lacking interconnections between the different subsystems. Hence, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the overall security of a car or to identify aspects that have not been sufficiently covered by security analyses.
With the development of vehicle intelligence and the Internet of Vehicles, how to protect the safety of the vehicle network system has become a focus issue that needs to be solved urgently. The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is currently a very widely used vehicle-mounted bus, and its security largely determines the degree of vehicle-mounted information security. The CAN bus lacks adequate protection mechanisms and is vulnerable to external attacks such as replay attacks, modifying attacks, and so on. On the basis of the existing work, this paper proposes an authentication method that combines Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC)-SHA256 and Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) algorithms. This method is based on dynamic identity authentication in challenge/response made and combined with the characteristics of the CAN bus itself as it achieves the identity authentication between the gateway and multiple electronic control units (ECUs).
This paper proposes a domain-centralized powertrain E/E (electrical and/or electronic) architecture for all-electric vehicles that features: a powerful master controller (domain controller) that implements most of the functionality of the domain; a set of smart actuators for electric motor(s), HV (High Voltage) battery pack, and thermal management; and a gateway that routes all hardware signals, including digital and analog I/O, and field bus signals between the domain controller and the rest of the vehicle that is outside of the domain. Major functional safety aspects of the architecture are presented and a safety architecture is proposed. The work represents an early E/E architecture proposal. In particular, detailed partitioning of software components over the domain’s Electronic Control Units (ECUs) has not been determined yet; instead, potential partitioning schemes are discussed.
Abstract Secure boot is a fundamental security primitive for establishing trust in computer systems. For real-time safety applications, the time taken to perform the boot measurement conflicts with the need for near instant availability. To speed up the boot measurement while establishing an acceptable degree of trust, we propose a dual-phase secure boot algorithm that balances the strong requirement for data tamper detection with the strong requirement for real-time availability. A probabilistic boot measurement is executed in the first phase to allow the system to be quickly booted. This is followed by a full boot measurement to verify the first-phase results and generate the new sampled space for the next boot cycle. The dual-phase approach allows the system to be operational within a fraction of the time needed for a full boot measurement while producing a high detection probability of data tampering.
Abstract The automotive industry intends to create new services that involve sharing vehicle control information via a wide area network. In modern vehicles, an in-vehicle network shares information between more than 70 electronic control units (ECUs) inside a vehicle while it is driven. However, such a complicated system configuration can result in security vulnerabilities. The possibility of cyber-attacks on vehicles via external services has been demonstrated in many research projects. As advances in vehicle systems (e.g., autonomous drive) progress, the number of vulnerabilities to be exploited by cyber-attacks will also increase. Therefore, future vehicles need security measures to detect unknown cyber-attacks. We propose anomaly-based intrusion detection to detect unknown cyber-attacks for the Control Area Network (CAN) protocol, which is popular as a communication protocol for in-vehicle networks.
To achieve high robustness and quality, automotive ECUs must initialize from low-power states as quickly as possible. However, microprocessor and memory advances have failed to keep pace with software image size growth in complex ECUs such as in Infotainment and Telematics. Loading the boot image from non-volatile storage to RAM and initializing the software can take a very long time to show the first screen and result in sluggish performance for a significant time thereafter which both degrade customer perceived quality. Designers of mobile devices such as portable phones, laptops, and tablets address this problem using Suspend mode whereby the main processor and peripheral devices are powered down during periods of inactivity, but memory contents are preserved by a small “self-refresh” current. When the device is turned back “on”, fully initialized memory content allows the system to initialize nearly instantaneously.
Abstract Over the past forty years, the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) technology has grown in both sophistication and volume in the automotive sector, and modern vehicles may comprise hundreds of ECUs. ECUs typically communicate via a bus-based network architecture to collectively support a broad range of safety-critical capabilities, such as obstacle avoidance, lane management, and adaptive cruise control. However, this technology evolution has also brought about risks: if ECU firmware is compromised, then vehicle safety may be compromised. Recent experiments and demonstrations have shown that ECU firmware is not only poorly protected but also that compromised firmware may pose safety risks to occupants and bystanders.
GM's CTO driving new paths to technology leadership 'We're making actual production commitments regarding our advanced-technology strategy, rather than just talking about it,' says GM's CTO Jon Lauckner. 'We're absolutely going to be among the leaders, if not the leader, in these areas.' Aluminum prepares for its next big leap Ford's F-Series blockbuster was just the beginning. New micromills now in pilot phase aim to bring vastly stronger and more formable light-alloy materials at higher capacity, says Alcoa's Mike Murphy. Slick solutions for friction reduction From new lubricants to 'smart' oil pumps and clever bearing technologies, engine designers are attacking every potential source of spin losses and internal friction in the quest for more mechanical work out of less fuel. Next-gen NSX: a twin-turbo, multi-material Ferrari-fighter The production NSX made its much-awaited global debut at NAIAS in January.
Global Viewpoints The latest strategies are investigated for vehicle development by automakers and major suppliers. Sports cars embrace array of green technology IMSA Tudor United SportsCar Championship promotes a variety of green technologies to link racing to the road. More gears, more challenges Many strategies, as well as key software and hardware aspects related to controllers, networks, sensors, and actuators, must be considered to keep automatic transmissions shifting smoothly as more gears are added to improve fuel economy. Advancing structural composites Industry experts address the opportunities and challenges involved with moving toward composite-intensive vehicles, including Nissan's effort to produce a high-volume, fully recyclable composite liftgate with low metal content.
Innovations for lightweighting Tough fuel-economy bogies for 2021 and beyond are driving new approaches to materials use, as seen in these case studies. Axellent progress AAM's new Quantum drive-axle technology is a leap forward in lightweight, efficient driveline systems aimed at 2020 and beyond. Low-temperature combustion ready for prime time? At SAE's High-Efficiency IC Engines Symposium, Delphi said its new, third-generation GDCI is promising, but even LTC proponents admit that challenges remain. More automation for ECU testing The latest fault-insertion tests enable engineers to run more test cases in less time.
Volkswagen reveals its 'people's' EV VW's ID.4 leads the 2021 stampede to electrification for the mass market. Answering the fuel-cell compressor question The optimum compressor device for a fuel cell depends on vehicle application - and a lot more. An Eaton expert explains. Tire pressure's impact on EV driving range A new study shows that tighter control of tire-pressure loss can lead to marked improvement in electric-vehicle efficiency. Editorial Warm socks for the EV options list Supplier Eye For suppliers, a new drumbeat New SAE wireless charging standard is EV game-changer Tula DMD aims for more-efficient e-machines Multiphysics helps transform modeling, simulation Is the camshaft being timed out? New Magna seat puts connectivity in the second row BMW reveals its first "M" performance-badged two-wheeler Volkswagen readies new-generation Golf R Q&A Discussing safety tech, standards and industry trends with Hyundai North America's Brian Latouf
New vision @ Gentex Creating a vital ADAS partner through home-grown R&D and manufacturing in (of all places) western Michigan. Positioning for hybrid growth BorgWarner "modularizes" to provide OEMs optimal electrified-driveline flexibility. Editorial: Beleaguered diesel could use a break-or a breakthrough SAE Standards News Kickoff to begin testing program to validate SAE J2954 wireless charging Recommended Practice Supplier Eye Will you be an active participant or passive bystander? The Navigator For future vehicles, communication equals trust Tenneco readies new semi-active digital suspension for 2020 New 90-degree turbo V6 leads Audi's hybridization blitz GKN using modular control algorithms for added systems integration U of M students engineer new autonomous shuttle system Jaguar's 2018 E-Pace shares Land Rover bones Ford pumps powertrains for 2018 F-150 2018 Subaru Crosstrek moves to new global platform Nissan's Ponz Pandikithura on EV lifecycle value
Robert Bosch GmBH proposed in 2012 a new version of communication protocol named as Controller area network with Flexible Data-Rate (CANFD), that supports data frames up to 64 bytes compared to 8 bytes of CAN. With limited data frame size of CAN message, and it is impossible to be encrypted and secured. With this new feature of CAN FD, we propose a hardware design - CAN crypto FPGA chip to secure data transmitted through CAN FD bus by using AES-128 and SHA-1 algorithms with a symmetric key. AES-128 algorithm will provide confidentiality of CAN message and SHA-1 algorithm with a symmetric key (HMAC) will provide integrity and authentication of CAN message. The design has been modeled and verified by using Verilog HDL – a hardware description language, and implemented successfully into Xilinx FPGA chip by using simulation tool ISE (Xilinx).
Several external networks like telematics, and SOTA and many in-vehicle networks by gateways and domain controllers have been increasingly introduced. However, these trends may potentially make many critical data opened, attacked and modified by hackers. These days, vehicle security has been significantly required as these vehicle security threats are related to the human life like drivers and pedestrians. Threat modeling is process of secure software development lifecycle which is developed by Microsoft. It is a systematic approach for analyzing the potential threat in software and identifying the security risk associated with software. Through threat modeling, security risk is be mitigated and eliminated. In vehicle software System, one of vulnerability can affect critical problem about safety. An approach from experience and hacking cases is not enough for analyzing the potential threat and preparing new hacking attack.
In this paper, we outline past, present and future applications of automotive security for engine ECUs. Electronic immobilizers and anti-tuning countermeasures have been used for several years. Recently, OEMs and suppliers are facing more and more powerful attackers, and as a result, have introduced stronger countermeasures based on hardware security. Finally, with the advent of connected cars, it is expected that many things that currently require a physical connection will be done remotely in a near future. This includes remote diagnostics, reprogramming and engine calibration.
This recommended practice provides guidance on vehicle Cybersecurity and was created based off of, and expanded on from, existing practices which are being implemented or reported in industry, government and conference papers. ...Other proprietary Cybersecurity development processes and standards may have been established to support a specific manufacturer’s development processes, and may not be comprehensively represented in this document, however, information contained in this document may help refine existing in-house processes, methods, etc. ...This recommended practice establishes a set of high-level guiding principles for Cybersecurity as it relates to cyber-physical vehicle systems. This includes: Defining a complete lifecycle process framework that can be tailored and utilized within each organization’s development processes to incorporate Cybersecurity into cyber-physical vehicle systems from concept phase through production, operation, service, and decommissioning.
Passenger vehicles have made astounding technological leaps in recent years. Unfortunately, little of that progress has trickled down to other segments of the transportation industry leaving opportunities for massive gains in safety and performance. In particular, the electric drum brakes on most consumer trailers differ little from those on trailers over 70 years ago. Careful examination of current production passenger vehicle hardware and trailering provided the opportunity to produce a design and test vehicle for a plausible, practical, and performant trailer braking system for the future. This study equips the trailer with high control frequency antilock braking and dynamic torque distribution through use of passenger vehicle grade apply hardware.
Abstract In this work, we present an approach to support penetration tests by combining safety and security analyses to enhance automotive security testing. Our approach includes a new way to combine safety and threat analyses to derive possible test cases. We reuse outcomes of a performed safety analysis as the input for a threat analysis. We show systematically how to derive test cases, and we present the applicability of our approach by deriving and performing test cases for a penetration test of an automotive electronic control unit (ECU). Therefore, we selected an airbag control unit due to its safety-critical functionality. During the penetration test, the selected control unit was installed on a test bench, and we were able to successfully exploit a discovered vulnerability, causing the detonation of airbags.