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Journal Article

A Centrally Managed Identity-Anonymized CAN Communication System*

Abstract Identity-Anonymized CAN (IA-CAN) protocol is a secure CAN protocol, which provides the sender authentication by inserting a secret sequence of anonymous IDs (A-IDs) shared among the communication nodes. To prevent malicious attacks from the IA-CAN protocol, a secure and robust system error recovery mechanism is required. This article presents a central management method of IA-CAN, named the IA-CAN with a global A-ID, where a gateway plays a central role in the session initiation and system error recovery. Each ECU self-diagnoses the system errors, and (if an error happens) it automatically resynchronizes its A-ID generation by acquiring the recovery information from the gateway. We prototype both a hardware version of an IA-CAN controller and a system for the IA-CAN with a global A-ID using the controller to verify our concept.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Attack and Defense Model for the Automotive Domain

Abstract In the automotive domain, the overall complexity of technical components has increased enormously. Formerly isolated, purely mechanical cars are now a multitude of cyber-physical systems that are continuously interacting with other IT systems, for example, with the smartphone of their driver or the backend servers of the car manufacturer. This has huge security implications as demonstrated by several recent research papers that document attacks endangering the safety of the car. However, there is, to the best of our knowledge, no holistic overview or structured description of the complex automotive domain. Without such a big picture, distinct security research remains isolated and is lacking interconnections between the different subsystems. Hence, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the overall security of a car or to identify aspects that have not been sufficiently covered by security analyses.
Journal Article

A Distributed “Black Box” Audit Trail Design Specification for Connected and Automated Vehicle Data and Software Assurance

Abstract Automotive software is increasingly complex and critical to safe vehicle operation, and related embedded systems must remain up to date to ensure long-term system performance. Update mechanisms and data modification tools introduce opportunities for malicious actors to compromise these cyber-physical systems, and for trusted actors to mistakenly install incompatible software versions. A distributed and stratified “black box” audit trail for automotive software and data provenance is proposed to assure users, service providers, and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of vehicular software integrity and reliability. The proposed black box architecture is both layered and diffuse, employing distributed hash tables (DHT), a parity system and a public blockchain to provide high resilience, assurance, scalability, and efficiency for automotive and other high-assurance systems.
Journal Article

A Novel Assessment and Administration Method of Autonomous Vehicle

As a promising strategic industry group that is rapidly evolving around the world, autonomous vehicle is entering a critical phase of commercialization from demonstration to end markets. The global automotive industry and governments are facing new common topics and challenges brought by autonomous vehicle, such as how to test, assess, and administrate the autonomous vehicle to ensure their safe running in real traffic situations and proper interactions with other road users. Starting from the facts that the way to autonomous driving is the process of a robot or a machine taking over driving tasks from a human. This paper summarizes the main characteristics of autonomous vehicle which are different from traditional one, then demonstrates the limitations of the existing certification mechanism and related testing methods when applied to autonomous vehicle.
Journal Article

Accelerated Secure Boot for Real-Time Embedded Safety Systems

Abstract Secure boot is a fundamental security primitive for establishing trust in computer systems. For real-time safety applications, the time taken to perform the boot measurement conflicts with the need for near instant availability. To speed up the boot measurement while establishing an acceptable degree of trust, we propose a dual-phase secure boot algorithm that balances the strong requirement for data tamper detection with the strong requirement for real-time availability. A probabilistic boot measurement is executed in the first phase to allow the system to be quickly booted. This is followed by a full boot measurement to verify the first-phase results and generate the new sampled space for the next boot cycle. The dual-phase approach allows the system to be operational within a fraction of the time needed for a full boot measurement while producing a high detection probability of data tampering.

Addressing configuration controls in an era of multiple security frameworks

Sometimes mandatory, often voluntary, security frameworks are created to provide federal and commercial organizations with an effective roadmap for securing information technology (IT) systems. The goal is to reduce risk levels and prevent or mitigate cyberattacks. To accomplish this task, security frameworks typically provide a series of documented, agreed upon, and understood policies, procedures, and processes necessary to secure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information systems and data.
Technical Paper

An Integrated View on Automotive SPICE, Functional Safety and Cyber-Security

This increases the attractiveness of an attack on vehicles and thus introduces new risks for vehicle cybersecurity. Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. ...Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. Aware of this fact, the automotive industry has, therefore, recently taken multiple efforts in designing and producing safe and secure connected and automated vehicles. ...As the domain geared up for the cybersecurity challenges, they leveraged experiences from many other domains, but must face several unique challenges.
Journal Article

Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Using the Density Estimation of Reception Cycle Periods for In-Vehicle Networks

Abstract The automotive industry intends to create new services that involve sharing vehicle control information via a wide area network. In modern vehicles, an in-vehicle network shares information between more than 70 electronic control units (ECUs) inside a vehicle while it is driven. However, such a complicated system configuration can result in security vulnerabilities. The possibility of cyber-attacks on vehicles via external services has been demonstrated in many research projects. As advances in vehicle systems (e.g., autonomous drive) progress, the number of vulnerabilities to be exploited by cyber-attacks will also increase. Therefore, future vehicles need security measures to detect unknown cyber-attacks. We propose anomaly-based intrusion detection to detect unknown cyber-attacks for the Control Area Network (CAN) protocol, which is popular as a communication protocol for in-vehicle networks.
Journal Article

Assuring Vehicle Update Integrity Using Asymmetric Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Public Key Cryptography (PKC)

Abstract Over the past forty years, the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) technology has grown in both sophistication and volume in the automotive sector, and modern vehicles may comprise hundreds of ECUs. ECUs typically communicate via a bus-based network architecture to collectively support a broad range of safety-critical capabilities, such as obstacle avoidance, lane management, and adaptive cruise control. However, this technology evolution has also brought about risks: if ECU firmware is compromised, then vehicle safety may be compromised. Recent experiments and demonstrations have shown that ECU firmware is not only poorly protected but also that compromised firmware may pose safety risks to occupants and bystanders.

Assuring data integrity: vital for connected-vehicle markets

Connectivity, one of the fastest-growing technical features for new vehicles, has attracted the attention of many companies that hope to offer services and garner revenue by using data from vehicles. But before any market can emerge, data companies and vehicle owners will have to believe data integrity is ensured.

Automotive Cybersecurity Integrity Level (ACsIL)

A Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment Method that would work with the classification scheme or from which we could map into a specific level in the cybersecurity integrity classification scheme a. This will require reviewing existing TARA methods and deciding on one or a tailored version of one Determine how to relate the ACSIL for safety-related threats to the ASIL from ISO 26262

Automotive Engineering: August 2017

Is automotive ready for the inevitable? Cybersecurity experts talk defense strategies. Active Aero takes flight Reconfigurable "smart" aerodynamic aids are stretching performance-car envelopes in every direction.

Automotive Engineering: February 3, 2016

Baking in protection With vehicles joining the Internet of Things, connectivity is making cybersecurity a must-have obligation for automotive engineers, from initial designs through end-of-life.

Automotive Engineering: July 7, 2015

To serve and protect As cars become more connected and automated, cybersecurity concerns are rising. Industry engineers have many tools and techniques and are now deploying encryption and standards to ensure that vehicle controls are not altered or usurped by unauthorized people.

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2020

Editorial High noon for high-level autonomy The Navigator A fork in the road for the AV business The Electric, Autonomous Revolution Lifts Off Engineering the new generation of electric and hybrid vertical-take-off-and-landing vehicles at Wisk and Elroy Air. New SAE Standard for Automated-Driving Developers Developed in less than a year, SAE's new J3216 standard will impact traffic management, operations and safety for automated mobility. Making Data Logging, Replay and Prototyping More Efficient High levels of continuity and compatibility are vital to avoid interruptions in the development process - and reduce cost. Radar Death Star ELunewave's 3D-printed spherical antenna makes for fast, 360-degree single-snapshot readings that are claimed to beat the slower sweeps of conventional radar. The Case for FOTA in AV Data Security Firmware over-the-air data transmission helps OEMs drive secure vehicle autonomy.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Integrating Cybersecurity into Existing Development Processes

Strategies designed to deal with these challenges differ in the way in which added duties are assigned and cybersecurity topics are integrated into the already existing process steps. Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. ...Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. A cybersecurity development approach is frequently perceived as introducing impediments, that bear the risk of cybersecurity measures receiving a lower priority to reduce inconvenience. ...For an established development process and a team accustomed to this process, adding cybersecurity features to the product initially means inconvenience and reduced productivity without perceivable benefits.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).