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Journal Article

A Comprehensive Attack and Defense Model for the Automotive Domain

2019-01-17
Abstract In the automotive domain, the overall complexity of technical components has increased enormously. Formerly isolated, purely mechanical cars are now a multitude of cyber-physical systems that are continuously interacting with other IT systems, for example, with the smartphone of their driver or the backend servers of the car manufacturer. This has huge security implications as demonstrated by several recent research papers that document attacks endangering the safety of the car. However, there is, to the best of our knowledge, no holistic overview or structured description of the complex automotive domain. Without such a big picture, distinct security research remains isolated and is lacking interconnections between the different subsystems. Hence, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the overall security of a car or to identify aspects that have not been sufficiently covered by security analyses.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Risk Management Approach to Information Security in Intelligent Transport Systems

2021-05-05
Abstract Connected vehicles and intelligent transportation systems are currently evolving into highly interconnected digital environments. Due to the interconnectivity of different systems and complex communication flows, a joint risk analysis for combining safety and security from a system perspective does not yet exist. We introduce a novel method for joint risk assessment in the automotive sector as a combination of the Diamond Model, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), and Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR). These methods have been sequentially composed, which results in a comprehensive risk management approach to information security in an intelligent transport system (ITS). The Diamond Model serves to identify and structurally describe threats and scenarios, the widely accepted FMEA provides threat analysis by identifying possible error combinations, and FAIR provides a quantitative estimation of probabilities for the frequency and magnitude of risk events.
Technical Paper

A Controller Area Network Bus Identity Authentication Method Based on Hash Algorithm

2021-07-14
2021-01-5077
With the development of vehicle intelligence and the Internet of Vehicles, how to protect the safety of the vehicle network system has become a focus issue that needs to be solved urgently. The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is currently a very widely used vehicle-mounted bus, and its security largely determines the degree of vehicle-mounted information security. The CAN bus lacks adequate protection mechanisms and is vulnerable to external attacks such as replay attacks, modifying attacks, and so on. On the basis of the existing work, this paper proposes an authentication method that combines Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC)-SHA256 and Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) algorithms. This method is based on dynamic identity authentication in challenge/response made and combined with the characteristics of the CAN bus itself as it achieves the identity authentication between the gateway and multiple electronic control units (ECUs).
Journal Article

Accelerated Secure Boot for Real-Time Embedded Safety Systems

2019-07-08
Abstract Secure boot is a fundamental security primitive for establishing trust in computer systems. For real-time safety applications, the time taken to perform the boot measurement conflicts with the need for near instant availability. To speed up the boot measurement while establishing an acceptable degree of trust, we propose a dual-phase secure boot algorithm that balances the strong requirement for data tamper detection with the strong requirement for real-time availability. A probabilistic boot measurement is executed in the first phase to allow the system to be quickly booted. This is followed by a full boot measurement to verify the first-phase results and generate the new sampled space for the next boot cycle. The dual-phase approach allows the system to be operational within a fraction of the time needed for a full boot measurement while producing a high detection probability of data tampering.
Technical Paper

An Integrated View on Automotive SPICE, Functional Safety and Cyber-Security

2020-04-14
2020-01-0145
This increases the attractiveness of an attack on vehicles and thus introduces new risks for vehicle cybersecurity. Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. ...Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. Aware of this fact, the automotive industry has, therefore, recently taken multiple efforts in designing and producing safe and secure connected and automated vehicles. ...As the domain geared up for the cybersecurity challenges, they leveraged experiences from many other domains, but must face several unique challenges.
Technical Paper

Analyze This! Sound Static Analysis for Integration Verification of Large-Scale Automotive Software

2019-04-02
2019-01-1246
Safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements. One such requirement, imposed by all contemporary safety standards, is that no critical run-time errors must occur. Runtime errors can be caused by undefined or unspecified behavior of the programming language; examples are buffer overflows or data races. They may cause erroneous or erratic behavior, induce system failures, and constitute security vulnerabilities. A sound static analyzer reports all such defects in the code, or proves their absence. Sound static program analysis is a verification technique recommended by ISO/FDIS 26262 for software unit verification and for the verification of software integration. In this article we propose an analysis methodology that has been implemented with the static analyzer Astrée. It supports quick turn-around times and gives highly precise whole-program results.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: August 2017

2017-08-03
Is automotive ready for the inevitable? Cybersecurity experts talk defense strategies. Active Aero takes flight Reconfigurable "smart" aerodynamic aids are stretching performance-car envelopes in every direction.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: February 2017

2017-02-02
SAE Standards News VS committees fully engaged on cybersecurity. Honda's new 10-speed is a slick shifter SAE Level 3 'hand off' challenging AI researchers Lightweight door module aims to trim vehicle weight Exclusive first drive: Torotrak's V-Charge technology New 10-speed auto delights in 2017 Ford F-150 Power and more underscore 2018 Toyota Camry I.D.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: February 2018

2018-02-01
Leaf turns to the 2020s Nissan's pioneering battery-EV finally gets styling, propulsion and feature upgrades that put it back in the thick of the expanding electric-car race. A rebel's guide to chassis engineering Before the advent of FEA, engineers used their hands to study chassis strength and stiffness. The approach still offers benefits today, notes the man who wrote chassis engineering's "bible." Auto tech comes on strong at CES 2018 The automotive sector showed up at CES with autonomy announcements by the score and a spectrum of new-technology unveilings. New SAE President focused on Big Data Mircea Gradu, senior VP and quality chief at lidar specialist Velodyne, targets data analytics, electrification and connectivity, and STEM initiatives during his 2018 term.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: January/February 2020

2020-02-06
Heat seekers While engineers debate the use of thermal-imaging sensors for ADAS, their capability and value are being proven for AVs of all levels. EV battery-materials testing gets physical Reliable materials-testing methodologies are vital for progress in electric-vehicle battery development. A leader in the field explains. Engineered in plastic SPE's annual awards highlight new and interesting materials and their applications. Tremec's supercar DCT To polish the 2020 mid-engine Corvette's driving prowess, GM and Tremec engineers joined forces to create a new and better auto-mated transaxle.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: June 2017

2017-06-01
Tackling NVH one dB per day New tools and technologies are helping engineers reduce vehicle Noise, Vibration and Harshness. Artificial intelligence becomes a reality Automakers could be among the leaders in deploying AI in free-standing, high-reliability environments. But developers must determine how to mitigate undesirable side-effects. Lidar: autonomy's mission-critical component Automated-driving capability likely won't happen without Lidar. But what technology-and at what price? Formula One goes longer, lower, wider for 2017 New rules make the cars faster and more aggressive-looking, with a wider track, wider tires and bigger wings. Editorial: Core Ford, New Ford...OneFord? SAE Standards News Seeking a common language for vehicle automation Supplier Eye Are you innovating for NVH?
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: March 2019

2019-03-01
Rethinking the HUD Advanced tech solutions move toward augmented reality to bring greater capability to head-up displays. Motor matters New designs and materials are key to the next generation of electric machines for EV propulsion. Harnessing the power of Sim Serious cost savings could come from eliminating vehicle- and systems-level tests. Powerful simulation tools may be the only way to tackle the increasing complexity in mobility development. An OBE for the SAE Meet Paul Mascarenas-SAE International's 2019 president. He's a staunch advocate for professional development for engineers amid the mobility industry's transformation. Solving the propulsion puzzle Must-attend expert panels at SAE's WCX '19 will cover the propulsion-tech future like no other. Editorial Kill the EV tax credit by 2025 SAE Standards News SAE and Synopsys collaborate on cyber study Supplier Eye New Co. vs. Old Co.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: May 5, 2015

2015-05-05
Democratizing hybrid technologies Engineers continue to wring efficiency and mass out of their latest electrified propulsion systems with the aim of mainstreaming the technology. Automakers see possibilities, limits for gesture controls Recent concepts have shown the possibilities of gesture for controlling infotainment functions but the need for industry standards and control simplification complicate development. Ferrari massages 458 to create 488 GTB Ferrari engineers have further refined the 458 Italia model with a new turbocharged and downsized engine and revised aerodynamics to create the 488 GTB.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: November 2017

2017-11-02
700 miles, hands-free! GM's Super Cruise turns Cadillac drivers into passengers in a well-engineered first step toward greater vehicle autonomy. Toyota rethinks the Flagship The 2018 Lexus LS moves to twin-turbo V6 power and piles on the takumi. Honda 2018 Accord: Antidote for crossover fever The all-new, tenth-generation Accord is Honda's best-ever-and makes the case for why crossovers shouldn't take over the planet. Autonomy testing: Simulation to the rescue Autonomous technology development injects new rigors on vehicle-development testing.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: October 6, 2015

2015-10-06
2016 Malibu sheds 300 lb, adds new hybrid system More wheelbase, style, fuel economy, and comfort aim to move GM's volume midsize sedan from the sidelines to the fast lane. Lighter, more powerful 2016 Honda Pilot The third-generation SUV gets a sleek new look and plenty of slick technology for enhanced performance and safety. 2016 Mazda MX-5 stays true to its roots Mazda engineers give the industry a lesson in getting more from less. 2016 Land Rover Discovery Sport spearheads more efficient Land Rovers JLR's space-efficient, flexible SUV moves to JLR's new Ingenium modular engines. Audi chooses high technology, cautious design evolution for new A4 In addition to lighter weight and significant improvements in efficiency, the new car employs plenty of technology and driver support.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: September 1, 2015

2015-09-01
Driving EVs toward lower cost The race is on to reduce battery and electric-drive systems costs while improving efficiency. Seeking ways to make better computer crashes New models and simulations help improve safety as software and hardware provide more realism to iterate designs more quickly. Evaluating aluminum bonds Adhesively joined aluminum alloy sheets present challenges that steel-adhesive joints do not. Ford researchers present a modified technique to inspect Al-adhesive joints in lab and production environments. Leading the attack on engine pumping losses Cylinder deactivation delivers real-world fuel economy gains, helping vehicles to meet and exceed their sticker numbers. That's why the downsized/boosted guys now want it on their engines.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: September 2017

2017-09-01
New vision @ Gentex Creating a vital ADAS partner through home-grown R&D and manufacturing in (of all places) western Michigan. Positioning for hybrid growth BorgWarner "modularizes" to provide OEMs optimal electrified-driveline flexibility. Editorial: Beleaguered diesel could use a break-or a breakthrough SAE Standards News Kickoff to begin testing program to validate SAE J2954 wireless charging Recommended Practice Supplier Eye Will you be an active participant or passive bystander? The Navigator For future vehicles, communication equals trust Tenneco readies new semi-active digital suspension for 2020 New 90-degree turbo V6 leads Audi's hybridization blitz GKN using modular control algorithms for added systems integration U of M students engineer new autonomous shuttle system Jaguar's 2018 E-Pace shares Land Rover bones Ford pumps powertrains for 2018 F-150 2018 Subaru Crosstrek moves to new global platform Nissan's Ponz Pandikithura on EV lifecycle value
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