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9th AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference (2017)

Organized in cooperation with SAE International, AVL’s International Commercial Powertrain Conference- ICPC, happens every two years. It is the premier forum for truck, agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers to discuss powertrain technology challenges and solutions across their industries. This event offers a unique opportunity for engineers to address the synergy effects and distinctive characteristics of commercial vehicles, agricultural tractors and non-road vehicles, and industrial machinery. In 2017, the 9th ICPC focused on alternative powertrain technologies and innovations improving operating efficiency. These proceedings focus on: • Future challenges for engines and emissions • Smart Technologies Changing Farming • Cyber Physical Systems in Agriculture Business • OEM View of the Future of the Construction Machinery Industry • Powertrain Developments • CO2 Reduction • CVT Transmission Platform Technology • Autonomous and Connected Trucks
Technical Paper

A Safety and Security Testbed for Assured Autonomy in Vehicles

Connectivity and autonomy in vehicles promise improved efficiency, safety and comfort. The increasing use of embedded systems and the cyber element bring with them many challenges regarding cyberattacks which can seriously compromise driver and passenger safety. Beyond penetration testing, assessment of the security vulnerabilities of a component must be done through the design phase of its life cycle. This paper describes the development of a benchtop testbed which allows for the assurance of safety and security of components with all capabilities from Model-in-loop to Software-in-loop to Hardware-in-loop testing. Environment simulation is obtained using the AV simulator, CARLA which provides realistic scenarios and sensor information such as Radar, Lidar etc. MATLAB runs the vehicle, powertrain and control models of the vehicle allowing for the implementation and testing of customized models and algorithms.

Autonomous Technologies: Applications That Matter

Over the years, the DARPA Challenges in the United States have galvanized interest in autonomous cars, making them a real possibility in the mind of the public, but autonomous and unmanned vehicles have been increasingly employed in many roles on land, in the water, and in the air. Military applications have received a great deal of attention, with weaponized unmanned aircraft (drones) being the most prominent. However, unmanned vehicles with varying degrees of autonomy already have many civilian applications. Some of these are quite familiar (such as the Roomba autonomous vacuum cleaner), while others remain largely out of the public eye (such as autonomous farm equipment). Additional applications and more capable vehicles are rapidly coming to the markets in the years ahead. This book examines a number of economically important areas in which unmanned and autonomous vehicles, also understood here as autonomous technologies, are already used or soon will be.
Technical Paper

Buckendale Lecture Series: Transformational Technologies Reshaping Transportation—A Government Perspective

Transportation departments are under-going a dramatic transformation, shifting from organizations focused primarily on building roads to a focus on mobility for all users. The transformation is the result of rapidly advancing autonomous vehicle technology and personal telecommunication technology. These technologies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve safety, mobility, and economic opportunity for society and industry. Future generations of engineers and other transportation professionals have the opportunity to be part of that societal change. This paper will focus on the technologies state DOT’s and the private sector are researching, developing, and deploying to promote the future of mobility and improved efficiency for commercial trucking through advancements in truck platooning, self-driving long-haul trucking, and automated last mile distribution networks.

CAN FD Data Link Layer

The flexible data rate capability in CAN (commonly called CAN FD) is implemented as a transport layer in order to allow for functional safety, cybersecurity, extended transport capability, and backward compatibility with SAE J1939DA.
Journal Article

Chip and Board Level Digital Forensics of Cummins Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders

Crashes involving Cummins powered heavy vehicles can damage the electronic control module (ECM) containing heavy vehicle event data recorder (HVEDR) records. When ECMs are broken and data cannot be extracted using vehicle diagnostics tools, more invasive and low-level techniques are needed to forensically preserve and decode HVEDR data. A technique for extracting non-volatile memory contents using non-destructive board level techniques through the available in-circuit debugging port is presented. Additional chip level data extraction techniques can also provide access to the HVEDR data. Once the data is obtained and preserved in a forensically sound manner, the binary record is decoded to reveal typical HVDER data like engine speed, vehicle speed, accelerator pedal position, and other status data. The memory contents from the ECM can be written to a surrogate and decoded with traditional maintenance and diagnostic software.
Journal Article

Cybersecurity Considerations for Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders

Abstract Trust in the digital data from heavy vehicle event data recorders (HVEDRs) is paramount to using the data in legal contests. Ensuring the trust in the HVEDR data requires an examination of the ways the digital information can be attacked, both purposefully and inadvertently. The goal or objective of an attack on HVEDR data will be to have the data omitted in a case. To this end, we developed an attack tree and establish a model for violating the trust needed for HVEDR data. The attack tree provides context for mitigations and also for functional requirements. A trust model is introduced as well as a discussion on what constitutes forensically sound data. The main contribution of this article is an attack tree-based model of both malicious and accidental events contributing to compromised event data recorder (EDR) data. A comprehensive list of mitigations for HVEDR systems results from this analysis.

Cybersecurity for Commercial Vehicles

It delivers details on key subject areas including: • SAE International Standard J3061; the cybersecurity guidebook for cyber-physical vehicle systems • The differences between automotive and commercial vehicle cybersecurity. • Forensics for identifying breaches in cybersecurity. • Platooning and fleet implications. • Impacts and importance of secure systems for today and for the future. ...This book provides a thorough view of cybersecurity to encourage those in the commercial vehicle industry to be fully aware and concerned that their fleet and cargo could be at risk to a cyber-attack. ...It delivers details on key subject areas including: • SAE International Standard J3061; the cybersecurity guidebook for cyber-physical vehicle systems • The differences between automotive and commercial vehicle cybersecurity. • Forensics for identifying breaches in cybersecurity. • Platooning and fleet implications. • Impacts and importance of secure systems for today and for the future.

Energy in the 21st Century (2nd Edition)

This book, in its second edition, examines the energy sources that play a vital role in society today, as well as those that may be the primary energy sources of tomorrow. From our reliance on fossil fuels to the quest for energy independence, and the environmental issues that follow each decision, this book delves into the most prominent energy issues of our time. Armed with this information, the reader can think critically about the direction they want this world to take. Contents: Brief History of Energy Consumption Fossil Energy - Coal Fossil Energy - Oil and Gas Peak Oil Nuclear Energy Renewable Energy - Solar Energy Renewable Energy - Wind Energy Renewable Energy - Energy from Water Renewable Energy - Bioenergy and Synfuels Energy Carrier, Energy Storage and Hybrid Energy Systems Electricity Generation and Distribution Energy Economics Future Issues - Geopolitics of Energy Future Issues - Energy Forecasts
Journal Article

Ensuring Fuel Economy Performance of Commercial Vehicle Fleets Using Blockchain Technology

In the past, research on blockchain technology has addressed security and privacy concerns within intelligent transportation systems for critical V2I and V2V communications that form the backbone of Internet of Vehicles. Within trucking industry, a recent trend has been observed towards the use of blockchain technology for operations. Industry stakeholders are particularly looking forward to refining status quo contract management and vehicle maintenance processes through blockchains. However, the use of blockchain technology for enhancing vehicle performance in fleets, especially while considering the fact that modern-day intelligent vehicles are prone to cyber security threats, is an area that has attracted less attention. In this paper, we demonstrate a case study that makes use of blockchains to securely optimize the fuel economy of fleets that do package pickup and delivery (P&D) in urban areas.

Europe’s blockchain-based Smart E-Mobility Challenge will conclude this May in Germany

TIoTA, an open software consortium of over 50 members organized to support the creation of a secure, scalable, interoperable, and trusted IoT ecosystem, began the E-Mobility Challenge to link IoT devices with consumers and stakeholder companies such as operators and service, communication, and payment providers within the preexisting European electric vehicle ecosystem.

Hardware Protected Security for Ground Vehicles

Access mechanisms to system data and/or control is a primary use case of the hardware protected security environment (hardware protected security environment) during different uses and stages of the system. The hardware protected security environment acts as a gatekeeper for these use cases and not necessarily as the executor of the function. This section is a generalization of such use cases in an attempt to extract common requirements for the hardware protected security environment that enable it to be a gatekeeper. Examples are: Creating a new key fob Re-flashing ECU firmware Reading/exporting PII out of the ECU Using a subscription-based feature Performing some service on an ECU Transferring ownership of the vehicle Some of these examples are discussed later in this section and some have detailed sections of their own. This list is by no means comprehensive.

MOBI rolls out the first blockchain-enabled Vehicle Identity (VID) mobility standard

The Mobility Open Blockchain Initiative – a global nonprofit working to create standards in blockchain, distributed ledgers, and related technologies for consumers, smart cities, and mobility – has launched the industry's first vehicle identification (VID) standard incorporating blockchain technology into a digital vehicle identification system.