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Journal Article

A Centrally Managed Identity-Anonymized CAN Communication System*

2018-05-16
Abstract Identity-Anonymized CAN (IA-CAN) protocol is a secure CAN protocol, which provides the sender authentication by inserting a secret sequence of anonymous IDs (A-IDs) shared among the communication nodes. To prevent malicious attacks from the IA-CAN protocol, a secure and robust system error recovery mechanism is required. This article presents a central management method of IA-CAN, named the IA-CAN with a global A-ID, where a gateway plays a central role in the session initiation and system error recovery. Each ECU self-diagnoses the system errors, and (if an error happens) it automatically resynchronizes its A-ID generation by acquiring the recovery information from the gateway. We prototype both a hardware version of an IA-CAN controller and a system for the IA-CAN with a global A-ID using the controller to verify our concept.
Technical Paper

A Safety and Security Testbed for Assured Autonomy in Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1291
Connectivity and autonomy in vehicles promise improved efficiency, safety and comfort. The increasing use of embedded systems and the cyber element bring with them many challenges regarding cyberattacks which can seriously compromise driver and passenger safety. Beyond penetration testing, assessment of the security vulnerabilities of a component must be done through the design phase of its life cycle. This paper describes the development of a benchtop testbed which allows for the assurance of safety and security of components with all capabilities from Model-in-loop to Software-in-loop to Hardware-in-loop testing. Environment simulation is obtained using the AV simulator, CARLA which provides realistic scenarios and sensor information such as Radar, Lidar etc. MATLAB runs the vehicle, powertrain and control models of the vehicle allowing for the implementation and testing of customized models and algorithms.
Technical Paper

Buckendale Lecture Series: Transformational Technologies Reshaping Transportation—A Government Perspective

2018-09-01
2018-01-2011
Transportation departments are under-going a dramatic transformation, shifting from organizations focused primarily on building roads to a focus on mobility for all users. The transformation is the result of rapidly advancing autonomous vehicle technology and personal telecommunication technology. These technologies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve safety, mobility, and economic opportunity for society and industry. Future generations of engineers and other transportation professionals have the opportunity to be part of that societal change. This paper will focus on the technologies state DOT’s and the private sector are researching, developing, and deploying to promote the future of mobility and improved efficiency for commercial trucking through advancements in truck platooning, self-driving long-haul trucking, and automated last mile distribution networks.
Standard

CAN FD Data Link Layer

2021-07-16
CURRENT
J1939-22_202107
The flexible data rate capability in CAN (commonly called CAN FD) is implemented as a transport layer in order to allow for functional safety, cybersecurity, extended transport capability, and backward compatibility with SAE J1939DA.
Standard

CAN FD Data Link Layer

2021-03-22
HISTORICAL
J1939-22_202103
The flexible data rate capability in CAN (commonly called CAN FD) is implemented as a transport layer in order to allow for functional safety, cybersecurity, extended transport capability, and backward compatibility with SAE J1939DA.
Journal Article

Chip and Board Level Digital Forensics of Cummins Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders

2020-04-14
2020-01-1326
Crashes involving Cummins powered heavy vehicles can damage the electronic control module (ECM) containing heavy vehicle event data recorder (HVEDR) records. When ECMs are broken and data cannot be extracted using vehicle diagnostics tools, more invasive and low-level techniques are needed to forensically preserve and decode HVEDR data. A technique for extracting non-volatile memory contents using non-destructive board level techniques through the available in-circuit debugging port is presented. Additional chip level data extraction techniques can also provide access to the HVEDR data. Once the data is obtained and preserved in a forensically sound manner, the binary record is decoded to reveal typical HVDER data like engine speed, vehicle speed, accelerator pedal position, and other status data. The memory contents from the ECM can be written to a surrogate and decoded with traditional maintenance and diagnostic software.
Book

Connectivity and the Mobility Industry

2011-10-24
Bound to play an ever increasing role in the driver-vehicle relationship, connectivity is becoming a basic consumer requirement when it comes to choosing a vehicle. Moving from the computer into the car, the ability to stay in touch, informed and entertained has reached yet a higher level of technology ubiquity. Featuring 20 SAE technical papers published in 2010 and 2011, Connectivity and the Mobility Industry addresses important aspects of one of the most cutting-edge topics in the industry today. Edited by Dr.
Journal Article

Cybersecurity Considerations for Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders

2018-12-14
Abstract Trust in the digital data from heavy vehicle event data recorders (HVEDRs) is paramount to using the data in legal contests. Ensuring the trust in the HVEDR data requires an examination of the ways the digital information can be attacked, both purposefully and inadvertently. The goal or objective of an attack on HVEDR data will be to have the data omitted in a case. To this end, we developed an attack tree and establish a model for violating the trust needed for HVEDR data. The attack tree provides context for mitigations and also for functional requirements. A trust model is introduced as well as a discussion on what constitutes forensically sound data. The main contribution of this article is an attack tree-based model of both malicious and accidental events contributing to compromised event data recorder (EDR) data. A comprehensive list of mitigations for HVEDR systems results from this analysis.
Standard

Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems

2016-01-14
HISTORICAL
J3061_201601
This recommended practice provides guidance on vehicle Cybersecurity and was created based off of, and expanded on from, existing practices which are being implemented or reported in industry, government and conference papers. ...Other proprietary Cybersecurity development processes and standards may have been established to support a specific manufacturer’s development processes, and may not be comprehensively represented in this document, however, information contained in this document may help refine existing in-house processes, methods, etc. ...This recommended practice establishes a set of high-level guiding principles for Cybersecurity as it relates to cyber-physical vehicle systems. This includes: Defining a complete lifecycle process framework that can be tailored and utilized within each organization’s development processes to incorporate Cybersecurity into cyber-physical vehicle systems from concept phase through production, operation, service, and decommissioning.
Standard

Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems

2021-12-15
CURRENT
J3061_202112
This recommended practice provides guidance on vehicle Cybersecurity and was created based off of, and expanded on from, existing practices which are being implemented or reported in industry, government and conference papers. ...Other proprietary Cybersecurity development processes and standards may have been established to support a specific manufacturer’s development processes, and may not be comprehensively represented in this document, however, information contained in this document may help refine existing in-house processes, methods, etc. ...This recommended practice establishes a set of high-level guiding principles for Cybersecurity as it relates to cyber-physical vehicle systems. This includes: Defining a complete lifecycle process framework that can be tailored and utilized within each organization’s development processes to incorporate Cybersecurity into cyber-physical vehicle systems from concept phase through production, operation, service, and decommissioning.
Book

Cybersecurity for Commercial Vehicles

2018-08-28
It delivers details on key subject areas including: • SAE International Standard J3061; the cybersecurity guidebook for cyber-physical vehicle systems • The differences between automotive and commercial vehicle cybersecurity. • Forensics for identifying breaches in cybersecurity. • Platooning and fleet implications. • Impacts and importance of secure systems for today and for the future. ...This book provides a thorough view of cybersecurity to encourage those in the commercial vehicle industry to be fully aware and concerned that their fleet and cargo could be at risk to a cyber-attack. ...It delivers details on key subject areas including: • SAE International Standard J3061; the cybersecurity guidebook for cyber-physical vehicle systems • The differences between automotive and commercial vehicle cybersecurity. • Forensics for identifying breaches in cybersecurity. • Platooning and fleet implications. • Impacts and importance of secure systems for today and for the future.
Book

Data Acquisition from Light-Duty Vehicles Using OBD and CAN

2018-11-15
Modern vehicles have multiple electronic control units (ECU) to control various subsystems such as the engine, brakes, steering, air conditioning, and infotainment. These ECUs are networked together to share information directly with each other. This in-vehicle network provides a data opportunity for improved maintenance, fleet management, warranty and legal issues, reliability, and accident reconstruction. Data Acquisition from Light-Duty Vehicles Using OBD and CAN is a guide for the reader on how to acquire and correctly interpret data from the in-vehicle network of light-duty (LD) vehicles. The reader will learn how to determine what data is available on the vehicle's network, acquire messages and convert them to scaled engineering parameters, apply more than 25 applicable standards, and understand 15 important test modes.
Journal Article

Ensuring Fuel Economy Performance of Commercial Vehicle Fleets Using Blockchain Technology

2019-04-02
2019-01-1078
In the past, research on blockchain technology has addressed security and privacy concerns within intelligent transportation systems for critical V2I and V2V communications that form the backbone of Internet of Vehicles. Within trucking industry, a recent trend has been observed towards the use of blockchain technology for operations. Industry stakeholders are particularly looking forward to refining status quo contract management and vehicle maintenance processes through blockchains. However, the use of blockchain technology for enhancing vehicle performance in fleets, especially while considering the fact that modern-day intelligent vehicles are prone to cyber security threats, is an area that has attracted less attention. In this paper, we demonstrate a case study that makes use of blockchains to securely optimize the fuel economy of fleets that do package pickup and delivery (P&D) in urban areas.
Standard

Hardware Protected Security for Ground Vehicles

2020-02-10
CURRENT
J3101_202002
Access mechanisms to system data and/or control is a primary use case of the hardware protected security environment (hardware protected security environment) during different uses and stages of the system. The hardware protected security environment acts as a gatekeeper for these use cases and not necessarily as the executor of the function. This section is a generalization of such use cases in an attempt to extract common requirements for the hardware protected security environment that enable it to be a gatekeeper. Examples are: Creating a new key fob Re-flashing ECU firmware Reading/exporting PII out of the ECU Using a subscription-based feature Performing some service on an ECU Transferring ownership of the vehicle Some of these examples are discussed later in this section and some have detailed sections of their own. This list is by no means comprehensive.
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