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Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Attack and Defense Model for the Automotive Domain

Abstract In the automotive domain, the overall complexity of technical components has increased enormously. Formerly isolated, purely mechanical cars are now a multitude of cyber-physical systems that are continuously interacting with other IT systems, for example, with the smartphone of their driver or the backend servers of the car manufacturer. This has huge security implications as demonstrated by several recent research papers that document attacks endangering the safety of the car. However, there is, to the best of our knowledge, no holistic overview or structured description of the complex automotive domain. Without such a big picture, distinct security research remains isolated and is lacking interconnections between the different subsystems. Hence, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the overall security of a car or to identify aspects that have not been sufficiently covered by security analyses.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Training Approach for Automotive Cybersecurity Engineering

A significant milestone in advancing cybersecurity within the automotive industry is the release of the first international standard for automotive cybersecurity ISO/SAE 21434:2021 ‘Road Vehicles — Cybersecurity Engineering’. A recently published type approval regulation for automotive cybersecurity (UN R155) is also tailored for member countries of the UNECE WP.29 alliance. ...Thus, the challenges for embedded automotive systems engineers are increasing while frameworks, tools and shared concepts for cybersecurity engineering and training are scarce. Hence, cybersecurity training in the automotive domain necessitates an understanding of domain-specific intricacies and the unique challenges at the intersection of cybersecurity and embedded systems engineering, elevating the need for improving the skill set and knowledge of automotive cybersecurity engineers. ...Hence, cybersecurity training in the automotive domain necessitates an understanding of domain-specific intricacies and the unique challenges at the intersection of cybersecurity and embedded systems engineering, elevating the need for improving the skill set and knowledge of automotive cybersecurity engineers. This paper delves into an automotive cybersecurity training concept aimed at enhancing the proficiency of development engineers.
Journal Article

A Global Survey of Standardization and Industry Practices of Automotive Cybersecurity Validation and Verification Testing Processes and Tools

Abstract The United Nation Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Regulation 155—Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Management System (UN R155) mandates the development of cybersecurity management systems (CSMS) as part of a vehicle’s lifecycle. ...Due to the focus of R155 and its suggested implementation guideline, ISO/SAE 21434:2021—Road Vehicle Cybersecurity Engineering, mainly centering on the alignment of cybersecurity risk management to the vehicle development lifecycle, there is a gap in knowledge of proscribed activities for validation and verification testing. ...An inherent component of the CSMS is cybersecurity risk management and assessment. Validation and verification testing is a key activity for measuring the effectiveness of risk management, and it is mandated by UN R155 for type approval.
Journal Article

A Quantitative Analysis of Autonomous Vehicle Cybersecurity as a Component of Trust

Abstract Connected autonomous vehicles that employ internet connectivity are technologically complex, which makes them vulnerable to cyberattacks. Many cybersecurity researchers, white hat hackers, and black hat hackers have discovered numerous exploitable vulnerabilities in connected vehicles. ...This study expanded the technology acceptance model (TAM) to include cybersecurity and level of trust as determinants of technology acceptance. This study surveyed a diverse sample of 209 licensed US drivers over 18 years old.
Journal Article

A Systematic Mapping Study on Security Countermeasures of In-Vehicle Communication Systems

Abstract The innovations of vehicle connectivity have been increasing dramatically to enhance the safety and user experience of driving, while the rising numbers of interfaces to the external world also bring security threats to vehicles. Many security countermeasures have been proposed and discussed to protect the systems and services against attacks. To provide an overview of the current states in this research field, we conducted a systematic mapping study (SMS) on the topic area “security countermeasures of in-vehicle communication systems.” A total of 279 papers are identified based on the defined study identification strategy and criteria. We discussed four research questions (RQs) related to the security countermeasures, validation methods, publication patterns, and research trends and gaps based on the extracted and classified data. Finally, we evaluated the validity threats and the whole mapping process.
Technical Paper

A Zero Trust Architecture for Automotive Networks

Since the early 1990’s, commercial vehicles have suffered from repeated vulnerability exploitations that resulted in a need for improved automotive cybersecurity. This paper outlines the strategies and challenges of implementing an automotive Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA) to secure intra-vehicle networks. ...This research successfully met the four requirements and demonstrated that using ZT principles in an on-vehicle network greatly improved the cybersecurity posture with manageable impact to system performance and deployment.

AIA predicts flying air taxis, supersonic air travel, and space industry for 2050

In the “What’s Next for Aerospace and Defense: A Vision for 2050” study, AIA, New York City-based McKinsey & Company, and other industry partners reveal a comprehensive 30-year, Industry 4.0 forecast of air travel and spaceflight based on improvements in automation and digitization, next-generation materials, alternative energy sources and storage, and increased data throughput.


This document defines an Aircraft Data Interface Function (ADIF) developed for aircraft installations that incorporate network components based on commercially available technologies. This document defines a set of protocols and services for the exchange of aircraft avionics data across aircraft networks. A common set of services that may be used to access specific avionics parameters are described. The ADIF may be implemented as a generic network service, or it may be implemented as a dedicated service within an ARINC 759 Aircraft Interface Devices (AID) such as those used with an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB). Supplement 8 includes improvements in the Aviation Data Broadcast Protocol (ADBP), adds support for the Media Independent Aircraft Messaging (MIAM) protocol, and contains data security enhancements. It also includes notification and deprecation of the Generic Aircraft Parameter Service (GAPS) protocol that will be deleted in a future supplement.
Best Practice

AVSC Best Practice for Describing an Operational Design Domain: Conceptual Framework and Lexicon

An ADS-operated vehicle’s operational design domain (ODD) is defined by the manufacturer based on numerous factors. Research is underway at other organizations to define and organize ODD elements into taxonomies and other relational constructs. In order to enhance collaboration and communication between manufacturers and developers and transportation authorities, common terms and consistent frameworks are needed. The conceptual framework presented by Automated Vehicle Safety Consortium establishes a lexicon that can be used consistently by ADS developers and manufacturers responsible for defining their ADS ODD. A common framework and lexicon will reduce confusion, align expectations, and therefore build public trust, acceptance, and confidence.
Best Practice

AVSC Information Report for Change Risk Management

AVSC Information Report for Change Risk Management AVSC00010202304 provides a process for change risk management for fleet-operated ADS-DVs using level 4 or 5 automation. The document addresses risks resulting from planned and unplanned changes in an ADS-DV design and/or operation. This information report is based on the concept of risk-informed decision-making. Making risk management decisions such as safety and change management, safety analysis, and safety assurance are especially applicable when moving from concept to production intent for the ADS-DV. Change Risk Management (CRM) does not replace best practices or other methods for managing safety anomalies or change management processes. It may instead be viewed as an additional resource that elaborates on how safety anomaly management and change management can be performed.

Aerospace & Defense Technology: February 2024

Certified Machine Learning-Based Avionics: Unlocking Safer Revolutionizing Electronic Warfare: Unleashing the Power of High-Performance Software Defined Radios Deterministic and Modular Architecture for Embedded Vehicle Systems Approximating the Material Stresses and System Requirements for Hypersonic Flight Design Approaches for Established and Emerging RF Receiver Architectures Rydberg Technologies Shows Potential of Long-Range RF with Quantum Sensor at NetModX23 New Method to Measure Wind Speed Could Unlock Drones' Potential A fundamentally different approach to wind estimation using unmanned aircraft than the vast majority of existing methods. This method uses no on-board flow sensor and does not attempt to estimate thrust or drag forces. Report on Human Factors Issues Likely to Affect Air-Launched Effects This report reviews human factors research on the supervision of multiple unmanned vehicles (UVs) as it affects human integration with Air-Launched Effects (ALE).

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2015

Countering cybersecurity threats against unmanned vehicle systems Cranfield University researchers have developed a monitoring system whose purpose is to monitor mission profile implementation at both high level mission execution and at lower level software code operation to tackle specific threats of malicious code and possible spurious commands received over a vehicle's data links.

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2020

The Role of Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technologies in Defense Applications Information Warfare - Staying Protected at the Edge Designing Connectivity Solutions for an Electric Aircraft Future Redesigning the Systems Engineering Process to Speed Development of E-Propulsion Aircraft Four RF Technology Trends You Need to Know for Satellite Communication Device Design Manufacturer Reduces Risk and Improves Quality of Military Radar Receivers Instrumentation for Fabrication and Testing of High-Speed Single-Rotor and Compound-Rotor Systems Precision data acquisition is required to generate a comprehensive set of measurements of the blade surface pressures, pitch link loads, hub loads, rotor wakes and performance of high-speed single-rotor and compound-rotor systems to support the development of next-generation rotorcraft.

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2023

DoD to Deploy Thousands of Low Cost Autonomous Systems Under Replicator Program Top Productivity Improvement Tips for Manufacturing Turbine Discs FACE Technical Standard Offers MOSA Lessons for Safety-Critical Software in Any Sector Adamant: A Soon-to-be Open Source, Mission-Critical Flight Software Framework Written in Ada Benefits and Challenges of Direct-RF Sampling for Avionic Platforms More Airports Test RF as Counter Measure for UAS in Restricted Airspace Adapting U.S. Army Acquisition to Ensure the Reliability and Safety of Autonomous Vehicles This report presents several challenges that the U.S. Army will face in the transition to autonomous vehicles, challenges that are only magnified in the current acquisition environment with limited testing. Artificial intelligence algorithms introduce additional complexity, resulting in systems with a complex combination of human, machine, and autonomous controllers.

Aerospace & Defense Technology: September 2022

The Sky is No Longer the Limit Celebrating 75 Years of Air Force Technology Air Force Technology Timeline Leveraging New Technologies for Mil/Aero Electronic Systems MOSA Enclosure Design for Military Systems Three Challenges to 5G's Military Success How to Specify and Select RF Filters Investigation of Requirements and Capabilities of Next-Generation Mine Warfare Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) tools, including functional flow block diagrams and functional hierarchies, are used to logically define mine countermeasure (MCM) UUV operations and support the development of alternative concepts of operations. On the Pulsed Laser Ablation of Metals and Semiconductors A comparison of effects across disparate experimental regimes through the study of pulsed laser ablation over several orders of magnitude in pulse duration, fluence, and material properties.

Aerospace Standards Index - 2024

This valuable resource lists all Aerospace Standards (AS), Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARP), Aerospace Information Reports (AIR), and Aerospace Resource Documents (ARD) published by SAE. Each listing includes title, subject, document number, key words, new and revised documents, and DODISS-adopted documents. AMS Index - Now Available!

Air mobility innovations take center stage at Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference 2018

Hundreds of aerospace executives, engineers, scientists, and academics are gathering in London this week for Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference (ASTC) 2018 from SAE International in Warrendale, Pennsylvania. Discussions during the three-day industry event center on the theme of innovating air mobility. Aerospace thought leaders are at ASTC discussing current challenges, the latest enabling technologies, and future opportunities, including those related to urban air mobility (UAM) and supersonic aircraft.