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Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0196
Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases.
Book

9th AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference (2017)

2017-05-21
Organized in cooperation with SAE International, AVL’s International Commercial Powertrain Conference- ICPC, happens every two years. It is the premier forum for truck, agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers to discuss powertrain technology challenges and solutions across their industries. This event offers a unique opportunity for engineers to address the synergy effects and distinctive characteristics of commercial vehicles, agricultural tractors and non-road vehicles, and industrial machinery. In 2017, the 9th ICPC focused on alternative powertrain technologies and innovations improving operating efficiency. These proceedings focus on: • Future challenges for engines and emissions • Smart Technologies Changing Farming • Cyber Physical Systems in Agriculture Business • OEM View of the Future of the Construction Machinery Industry • Powertrain Developments • CO2 Reduction • CVT Transmission Platform Technology • Autonomous and Connected Trucks
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Attack and Defense Model for the Automotive Domain

2019-01-17
Abstract In the automotive domain, the overall complexity of technical components has increased enormously. Formerly isolated, purely mechanical cars are now a multitude of cyber-physical systems that are continuously interacting with other IT systems, for example, with the smartphone of their driver or the backend servers of the car manufacturer. This has huge security implications as demonstrated by several recent research papers that document attacks endangering the safety of the car. However, there is, to the best of our knowledge, no holistic overview or structured description of the complex automotive domain. Without such a big picture, distinct security research remains isolated and is lacking interconnections between the different subsystems. Hence, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the overall security of a car or to identify aspects that have not been sufficiently covered by security analyses.
Journal Article

A Distributed “Black Box” Audit Trail Design Specification for Connected and Automated Vehicle Data and Software Assurance

2020-10-14
Abstract Automotive software is increasingly complex and critical to safe vehicle operation, and related embedded systems must remain up to date to ensure long-term system performance. Update mechanisms and data modification tools introduce opportunities for malicious actors to compromise these cyber-physical systems, and for trusted actors to mistakenly install incompatible software versions. A distributed and stratified “black box” audit trail for automotive software and data provenance is proposed to assure users, service providers, and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of vehicular software integrity and reliability. The proposed black box architecture is both layered and diffuse, employing distributed hash tables (DHT), a parity system and a public blockchain to provide high resilience, assurance, scalability, and efficiency for automotive and other high-assurance systems.
Journal Article

A Novel Assessment and Administration Method of Autonomous Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0708
As a promising strategic industry group that is rapidly evolving around the world, autonomous vehicle is entering a critical phase of commercialization from demonstration to end markets. The global automotive industry and governments are facing new common topics and challenges brought by autonomous vehicle, such as how to test, assess, and administrate the autonomous vehicle to ensure their safe running in real traffic situations and proper interactions with other road users. Starting from the facts that the way to autonomous driving is the process of a robot or a machine taking over driving tasks from a human. This paper summarizes the main characteristics of autonomous vehicle which are different from traditional one, then demonstrates the limitations of the existing certification mechanism and related testing methods when applied to autonomous vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Safety and Security Testbed for Assured Autonomy in Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1291
Connectivity and autonomy in vehicles promise improved efficiency, safety and comfort. The increasing use of embedded systems and the cyber element bring with them many challenges regarding cyberattacks which can seriously compromise driver and passenger safety. Beyond penetration testing, assessment of the security vulnerabilities of a component must be done through the design phase of its life cycle. This paper describes the development of a benchtop testbed which allows for the assurance of safety and security of components with all capabilities from Model-in-loop to Software-in-loop to Hardware-in-loop testing. Environment simulation is obtained using the AV simulator, CARLA which provides realistic scenarios and sensor information such as Radar, Lidar etc. MATLAB runs the vehicle, powertrain and control models of the vehicle allowing for the implementation and testing of customized models and algorithms.
Article

AIA predicts flying air taxis, supersonic air travel, and space industry for 2050

2019-03-15
In the “What’s Next for Aerospace and Defense: A Vision for 2050” study, AIA, New York City-based McKinsey & Company, and other industry partners reveal a comprehensive 30-year, Industry 4.0 forecast of air travel and spaceflight based on improvements in automation and digitization, next-generation materials, alternative energy sources and storage, and increased data throughput.
Best Practice

AVSC Best Practice for Describing an Operational Design Domain: Conceptual Framework and Lexicon

2020-04-15
CURRENT
AVSC00002202004
An ADS-operated vehicle’s operational design domain (ODD) is defined by the manufacturer based on numerous factors. Research is underway at other organizations to define and organize ODD elements into taxonomies and other relational constructs. In order to enhance collaboration and communication between manufacturers and developers and transportation authorities, common terms and consistent frameworks are needed. The conceptual framework presented by Automated Vehicle Safety Consortium establishes a lexicon that can be used consistently by ADS developers and manufacturers responsible for defining their ADS ODD. A common framework and lexicon will reduce confusion, align expectations, and therefore build public trust, acceptance, and confidence.
Technical Paper

Adopting Aviation Safety Knowledge into the Discussions of Safe Implementation of Connected and Autonomous Road Vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0074
The development of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) is progressing fast. Yet, safety and standardization-related discussions are limited due to the recent nature of the sector. Despite the effort that is initiated to kick-start the study, awareness among practitioners is still low. Hence, further effort is required to stimulate this discussion. Among the available works on CAV safety, some of them take inspiration from the aviation sector that has strict safety regulations. The underlying reason is the experience that has been gained over the decades. However, the literature still lacks a thorough association between automation in aviation and the CAV from the safety perspective. As such, this paper motivates the adoption of safe-automation knowledge from aviation to facilitate safer CAV systems.
Video

Advancing Aircraft Cyber Security - Potential New Architectures and Technologies

2012-03-16
Cyber security in the aviation industry, especially in relation to onboard aircraft systems, presents unique challenges in its implementation and management. The cyber threat model is constantly evolving and will continually present new and different challenges to the aircraft operator in responding to new cyber threats without either invoking a lengthy software update and re-certification process or limiting aircraft-to-ground communications to the threatened system or systems. This presentation discusses a number of system architectural options and developing technologies that could be considered to enhance the aircraft cyber protection and defensive capabilities of onboard systems as well as to minimize the effort associated with certification/re-certification. Some of these limit the aircraft?s vulnerabilities or in cyber terms, its ?threat surface?.
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: August 2020

2020-08-01
Reverse Engineering the Boeing E-3 Sentry's Secondary Flight Controls Vanadium - A Green Metal Critical to Aerospace and Clean Energy Thrust in Space - The Nuances of Thruster Valve Design 3D Printing Aerodynamic Improvements Cryogenic-Capable Isolators Improve the Performance of Millimeter-Wave Systems by Lowering Noise Levels Detection with Quantum Radar A new radar prototype utilizes quantum entanglement as a method of object detection. Preliminary Development of an Integrated Mobility, Lethality, and Survivability Soldier Performance Testing Platform Developing a methodology that incorporates objective measures of performance and is sensitive to changes in soldier-system equipment could help guide equipment manufacturers during product development and acquisition. Bore Elevation and Azimuth Measurement System (Beams) Newly developed laser apparatus verifies that the pointing accuracy requirement of a weapon's fire control system is met.
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: Feb 2016

2016-02-01
Clamoring for more entertainment Connected consumers drive demand for bandwidth, though seatback entertainment remains popular. Fighting for life in military markets Airbus Defense & Space is looking to revitalize and ramp up production rates of its military aircraft portfolio.
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2020

2020-10-01
The Role of Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technologies in Defense Applications Information Warfare - Staying Protected at the Edge Designing Connectivity Solutions for an Electric Aircraft Future Redesigning the Systems Engineering Process to Speed Development of E-Propulsion Aircraft Four RF Technology Trends You Need to Know for Satellite Communication Device Design Manufacturer Reduces Risk and Improves Quality of Military Radar Receivers Instrumentation for Fabrication and Testing of High-Speed Single-Rotor and Compound-Rotor Systems Precision data acquisition is required to generate a comprehensive set of measurements of the blade surface pressures, pitch link loads, hub loads, rotor wakes and performance of high-speed single-rotor and compound-rotor systems to support the development of next-generation rotorcraft.
Magazine

Aerospace Engineering & Manufacturing 2010-06-23

2010-06-23
Fast-track propulsion testing Whether it is compressor refinement or complete test programs for next-generation aircraft, the level of propulsion system development in Europe seems to be ever-increasing.
Technical Paper

An Integrated View on Automotive SPICE, Functional Safety and Cyber-Security

2020-04-14
2020-01-0145
This increases the attractiveness of an attack on vehicles and thus introduces new risks for vehicle cybersecurity. Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. ...Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. Aware of this fact, the automotive industry has, therefore, recently taken multiple efforts in designing and producing safe and secure connected and automated vehicles. ...As the domain geared up for the cybersecurity challenges, they leveraged experiences from many other domains, but must face several unique challenges.
Technical Paper

Analyze This! Sound Static Analysis for Integration Verification of Large-Scale Automotive Software

2019-04-02
2019-01-1246
Safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements. One such requirement, imposed by all contemporary safety standards, is that no critical run-time errors must occur. Runtime errors can be caused by undefined or unspecified behavior of the programming language; examples are buffer overflows or data races. They may cause erroneous or erratic behavior, induce system failures, and constitute security vulnerabilities. A sound static analyzer reports all such defects in the code, or proves their absence. Sound static program analysis is a verification technique recommended by ISO/FDIS 26262 for software unit verification and for the verification of software integration. In this article we propose an analysis methodology that has been implemented with the static analyzer Astrée. It supports quick turn-around times and gives highly precise whole-program results.
Journal Article

Assuring Vehicle Update Integrity Using Asymmetric Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Public Key Cryptography (PKC)

2020-08-24
Abstract Over the past forty years, the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) technology has grown in both sophistication and volume in the automotive sector, and modern vehicles may comprise hundreds of ECUs. ECUs typically communicate via a bus-based network architecture to collectively support a broad range of safety-critical capabilities, such as obstacle avoidance, lane management, and adaptive cruise control. However, this technology evolution has also brought about risks: if ECU firmware is compromised, then vehicle safety may be compromised. Recent experiments and demonstrations have shown that ECU firmware is not only poorly protected but also that compromised firmware may pose safety risks to occupants and bystanders.
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