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Journal Article

A Comprehensive Attack and Defense Model for the Automotive Domain

Abstract In the automotive domain, the overall complexity of technical components has increased enormously. Formerly isolated, purely mechanical cars are now a multitude of cyber-physical systems that are continuously interacting with other IT systems, for example, with the smartphone of their driver or the backend servers of the car manufacturer. This has huge security implications as demonstrated by several recent research papers that document attacks endangering the safety of the car. However, there is, to the best of our knowledge, no holistic overview or structured description of the complex automotive domain. Without such a big picture, distinct security research remains isolated and is lacking interconnections between the different subsystems. Hence, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the overall security of a car or to identify aspects that have not been sufficiently covered by security analyses.
Journal Article

A Deep Neural Network Attack Simulation against Data Storage of Autonomous Vehicles

Abstract In the pursuit of advancing autonomous vehicles (AVs), data-driven algorithms have become pivotal in replacing human perception and decision-making. While deep neural networks (DNNs) hold promise for perception tasks, the potential for catastrophic consequences due to algorithmic flaws is concerning. A well-known incident in 2016, involving a Tesla autopilot misidentifying a white truck as a cloud, underscores the risks and security vulnerabilities. In this article, we present a novel threat model and risk assessment (TARA) analysis on AV data storage, delving into potential threats and damage scenarios. Specifically, we focus on DNN parameter manipulation attacks, evaluating their impact on three distinct algorithms for traffic sign classification and lane assist.
Journal Article

A Global Survey of Standardization and Industry Practices of Automotive Cybersecurity Validation and Verification Testing Processes and Tools

Abstract The United Nation Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Regulation 155—Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Management System (UN R155) mandates the development of cybersecurity management systems (CSMS) as part of a vehicle’s lifecycle. ...Due to the focus of R155 and its suggested implementation guideline, ISO/SAE 21434:2021—Road Vehicle Cybersecurity Engineering, mainly centering on the alignment of cybersecurity risk management to the vehicle development lifecycle, there is a gap in knowledge of proscribed activities for validation and verification testing. ...An inherent component of the CSMS is cybersecurity risk management and assessment. Validation and verification testing is a key activity for measuring the effectiveness of risk management, and it is mandated by UN R155 for type approval.
Journal Article

A Novel Assessment and Administration Method of Autonomous Vehicle

As a promising strategic industry group that is rapidly evolving around the world, autonomous vehicle is entering a critical phase of commercialization from demonstration to end markets. The global automotive industry and governments are facing new common topics and challenges brought by autonomous vehicle, such as how to test, assess, and administrate the autonomous vehicle to ensure their safe running in real traffic situations and proper interactions with other road users. Starting from the facts that the way to autonomous driving is the process of a robot or a machine taking over driving tasks from a human. This paper summarizes the main characteristics of autonomous vehicle which are different from traditional one, then demonstrates the limitations of the existing certification mechanism and related testing methods when applied to autonomous vehicle.
Journal Article

A Quantitative Analysis of Autonomous Vehicle Cybersecurity as a Component of Trust

Abstract Connected autonomous vehicles that employ internet connectivity are technologically complex, which makes them vulnerable to cyberattacks. Many cybersecurity researchers, white hat hackers, and black hat hackers have discovered numerous exploitable vulnerabilities in connected vehicles. ...This study expanded the technology acceptance model (TAM) to include cybersecurity and level of trust as determinants of technology acceptance. This study surveyed a diverse sample of 209 licensed US drivers over 18 years old.

AIA predicts flying air taxis, supersonic air travel, and space industry for 2050

In the “What’s Next for Aerospace and Defense: A Vision for 2050” study, AIA, New York City-based McKinsey & Company, and other industry partners reveal a comprehensive 30-year, Industry 4.0 forecast of air travel and spaceflight based on improvements in automation and digitization, next-generation materials, alternative energy sources and storage, and increased data throughput.
Best Practice

AVSC Information Report for Change Risk Management

AVSC Information Report for Change Risk Management AVSC00010202304 provides a process for change risk management for fleet-operated ADS-DVs using level 4 or 5 automation. The document addresses risks resulting from planned and unplanned changes in an ADS-DV design and/or operation. This information report is based on the concept of risk-informed decision-making. Making risk management decisions such as safety and change management, safety analysis, and safety assurance are especially applicable when moving from concept to production intent for the ADS-DV. Change Risk Management (CRM) does not replace best practices or other methods for managing safety anomalies or change management processes. It may instead be viewed as an additional resource that elaborates on how safety anomaly management and change management can be performed.
Technical Paper

Access Control Requirements for Autonomous Robotic Fleets

Access control enforces security policies for controlling critical resources. For V2X (Vehicle to Everything) autonomous military vehicle fleets, network middleware systems such as ROS (Robotic Operating System) expose system resources through networked publisher/subscriber and client/server paradigms. Without proper access control, these systems are vulnerable to attacks from compromised network nodes, which may perform data poisoning attacks, flood packets on a network, or attempt to gain lateral control of other resources. Access control for robotic middleware systems has been investigated in both ROS1 and ROS2. Still, these implementations do not have mechanisms for evaluating a policy's consistency and completeness or writing expressive policies for distributed fleets. We explore an RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) mechanism layered onto ROS environments that uses local permission caches with precomputed truth tables for fast policy evaluation.

Aerospace & Defense Technology: April 2023

Breathing Life into Artificial Intelligence and Next Generation Autonomous Aerospace Systems Robotic Rotational Molding Creates New Opportunities for Military and Aerospace Applications Rim-Driven Electric Aircraft Propulsion High-Speed Midwave Infrared Cameras Enable Military Test Range Tracking System What Today's Advances in Radar Technology Mean for Testing and Training Tackling Ruggedization Challenges for RF Communications in Software Defined Radios AUVSI XPONENTIAL 2023 The Blueprint for Autonomy Multi-Scale Structuring of the Polar Ionosphere Understanding a radically new sensing capability for polar ionospheric science introduced by observational evidence recently provided by the electronically steerable Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR). Stepped-Frequency Distributed Radar for Through-the-Wall Sensing A technical analysis of the effectiveness of distributed radar for through-the-wall sensing applications.

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2020

The Role of Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technologies in Defense Applications Information Warfare - Staying Protected at the Edge Designing Connectivity Solutions for an Electric Aircraft Future Redesigning the Systems Engineering Process to Speed Development of E-Propulsion Aircraft Four RF Technology Trends You Need to Know for Satellite Communication Device Design Manufacturer Reduces Risk and Improves Quality of Military Radar Receivers Instrumentation for Fabrication and Testing of High-Speed Single-Rotor and Compound-Rotor Systems Precision data acquisition is required to generate a comprehensive set of measurements of the blade surface pressures, pitch link loads, hub loads, rotor wakes and performance of high-speed single-rotor and compound-rotor systems to support the development of next-generation rotorcraft.

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2023

DoD to Deploy Thousands of Low Cost Autonomous Systems Under Replicator Program Top Productivity Improvement Tips for Manufacturing Turbine Discs FACE Technical Standard Offers MOSA Lessons for Safety-Critical Software in Any Sector Adamant: A Soon-to-be Open Source, Mission-Critical Flight Software Framework Written in Ada Benefits and Challenges of Direct-RF Sampling for Avionic Platforms More Airports Test RF as Counter Measure for UAS in Restricted Airspace Adapting U.S. Army Acquisition to Ensure the Reliability and Safety of Autonomous Vehicles This report presents several challenges that the U.S. Army will face in the transition to autonomous vehicles, challenges that are only magnified in the current acquisition environment with limited testing. Artificial intelligence algorithms introduce additional complexity, resulting in systems with a complex combination of human, machine, and autonomous controllers.

Aerospace & Defense Technology: September 2023

How Thunderbolt 4 Helps Bring Fault-Tolerant, Distributed Systems to Market Delivering Operational Energy to Enhance Warfighter Capability Optoelectronic Analog Signal Transmission Takes Center Stage Amidst Aerospace and Defense Innovation Shaking Outside the Box to Advance Flight Research An Introduction to Quantum Computing How Laser Communications Innovation is Finally Coming of Age and Driving Innovation in Defense Spatial Calibration for Accurate Long Distance Measurement Using Infrared Cameras A new spatial calibration procedure has been introduced for infrared optical systems developed for cases where camera systems are required to be focused at distances beyond 100 meters. Towards Greater Sensitivity: A Brief FTIR and Infrared-Based Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy Comparative Study A presentation of work comparing efficacy of a traditional IR method used as a standard within the U.S.

Air mobility innovations take center stage at Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference 2018

Hundreds of aerospace executives, engineers, scientists, and academics are gathering in London this week for Aerospace Systems and Technology Conference (ASTC) 2018 from SAE International in Warrendale, Pennsylvania. Discussions during the three-day industry event center on the theme of innovating air mobility. Aerospace thought leaders are at ASTC discussing current challenges, the latest enabling technologies, and future opportunities, including those related to urban air mobility (UAM) and supersonic aircraft.
Technical Paper

An Adaptable Security by Design Approach for Ensuring a Secured Remote Monitoring Teleoperation (RMTO) of an Autonomous Vehicle

The separation of cybersecurity considerations in RMTO is barely considered, as so far, most available research and activities are mainly focused on AV. ...The main focus of this paper is addressing RMTO cybersecurity utilising an adaptable security-by-design approach, although security-by-design is still in the infant state within automotive cybersecurity. ...The main focus of this paper is addressing RMTO cybersecurity utilising an adaptable security-by-design approach, although security-by-design is still in the infant state within automotive cybersecurity. An adaptable security-by-design approach for RMTO covers Security Engineering Life-cycle, Logical Security Layered Concept, and Security Architecture.

Attend - Innovations in Mobility: Aerospace Digital Summit

Innovations in Mobility: Aerospace Digital Summitaerospace mobility leaders convene leverage cutting-edge technology, design, develop safety measures, integrate current regulations, suggest future policies, expand markets, diversify revenue streams.

AutoDrive Challenge

SAE International and General Motors have partnered to headline sponsor AutoDrive Challenge™, the latest of SAE International’s Collegiate Design Series.