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Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0196
Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: March 2018

2018-03-08
Truck Tech War! Ford, GM, and Ram arm their profit-pumping half-ton pickups for the 2020s' efficiency battle. Mobility mecca: WCX 2018 Provocative thought leaders, emerging disruptors, and the industry's best networking and career guidance all under one big roof: the 2018 SAE World Congress Experience is coming April 10-12. Mercedes adopts Harman UX for A-Class The 'smart' architecture is capable of OTA updates and features more-accurate voice recognition. Spark of genius Mazda's Skyactiv-X-the nexus of gasoline and diesel tech-remains on track for 2019 production. We test-drive recent prototypes to check development status. Taking aim at the drowsy-driver threat Hyundai Mobis is leveraging Level 4 tech to move 'departed' drivers safely off the road. Editorial: Fear and loathing on the path to Level 4 driving Supplier Eye Variability, risk and the value stream The Navigator How will automated vehicles deal with potholes?
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: November 2017

2017-11-02
700 miles, hands-free! GM's Super Cruise turns Cadillac drivers into passengers in a well-engineered first step toward greater vehicle autonomy. Toyota rethinks the Flagship The 2018 Lexus LS moves to twin-turbo V6 power and piles on the takumi. Honda 2018 Accord: Antidote for crossover fever The all-new, tenth-generation Accord is Honda's best-ever-and makes the case for why crossovers shouldn't take over the planet. Autonomy testing: Simulation to the rescue Autonomous technology development injects new rigors on vehicle-development testing.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: October 6, 2015

2015-10-06
2016 Malibu sheds 300 lb, adds new hybrid system More wheelbase, style, fuel economy, and comfort aim to move GM's volume midsize sedan from the sidelines to the fast lane. Lighter, more powerful 2016 Honda Pilot The third-generation SUV gets a sleek new look and plenty of slick technology for enhanced performance and safety. 2016 Mazda MX-5 stays true to its roots Mazda engineers give the industry a lesson in getting more from less. 2016 Land Rover Discovery Sport spearheads more efficient Land Rovers JLR's space-efficient, flexible SUV moves to JLR's new Ingenium modular engines. Audi chooses high technology, cautious design evolution for new A4 In addition to lighter weight and significant improvements in efficiency, the new car employs plenty of technology and driver support.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: October 6, 2016

2016-10-06
Steering Mazda's unique course A chassis engineer at heart, Chairman Seita Kanai challenges his engineers to think differently and embrace the Skyactiv technology that has made Mazda a benchmark. Delphi's multi-domain mindset From tackling the cyber threat to putting 48-volt hybrids with Dynamic Skip-Fire on the road, Engineering VP Mary Gustanski is harnessing a technology powerhouse. The evolving tire-development paradigm Advanced tire-simulation modeling allows tire development to keep pace with accelerated vehicle-development cycles. MEMS the word for next-gen HUDs New high-speed, quad-channel laser diode drivers are designed to beat the LCD and DLP incumbents for next-gen vehicle head-up displays.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: March 2021

2021-03-04
Editorial SPAC attack The Navigator Mapping the way to safe and natural automated driving Motorcycles Enter the ADAS Age The latest models from BMW, Ducati and KTM feature Bosch's new ACC setup, but further advancements will require navigating critical rider-control strategies. On the Way to SVA Aptiv says its Smart Vehicle Architecture central controller is the key to simpler, more compact and higher-performance ADAS and AV systems. New Insistence for Driver Assistance Panelists at SAE International's 2021 Government/Industry Meeting say assisted-driving technology is worthwhile - but effective driver monitoring is crucial. Flash! Lidar's Next Generation Arrives Technology solutions from new players and alliances are poised to drive down cost. Horiba MIRA's Vision for World-Class AV Testing A new autonomous vehicle development center called Assured CAV boasts a lengthy list of assets and capabilities.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: November 2019

2019-11-01
Editorial Bill Visnic: Expect the unexpected The Navigator Sam Abuelsamid: Separating illusion from magic in AV deployment The Road to Automobility The era of electrified, self-driving vehicles is upon us. Engineers are key to the transformation - with much hard work still to be done. Far and Away: Remote Drivers Monitor Autonomous Vehicles Remote operators are helping autonomous shuttles and other AVs navigate through complex situations. Mapping Canada - Centimeter by Centimeter A Montreal-based company leverages artificial intelligence to take on the task of developing high-definition maps of Canada. You've Lost That Queasy Feeling… Transcontinental research aims to understand the complex nature of motion sickness to help improve the automated-vehicle experience. 3D Sonar Sees Objects Overlooked by Costlier Sensors A dream of robotic fish inspires inexpensive automated-driving sensing technology that works for the critical areas close to the vehicle.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: September 2021

2021-09-02
Editorial Fool Self-Driving II The Navigator What will result from NHTSA's Tesla Autopilot investigation? Data Drives Driverless Truck Launch Smart diagnostics and advanced validation help support the reliability metrics required to gain confidence that autonomous trucks are ready for the road. Peering into the Distance New sensors of all types look out longer distances - and provide higher resolutions - for engineers pushing ADAS capabilities and higher-level vehicle automation. Ford Drives into SAE Level 2 Driver monitoring was an essential component to engineering the new "hands-free" BlueCruise/Active Glide enhanced ADAS system. A Chore No More? The Detroit Smart Parking Lab opens to develop and test emerging parking technology in real-world settings. Share and Share Alike The concepts of rideshare and urban mobility continue to evolve as new projects test what's possible.
Technical Paper

Case Study for Defining Security Goals and Requirements for Automotive Security Parts Using Threat Modeling

2018-04-03
2018-01-0014
Several external networks like telematics, and SOTA and many in-vehicle networks by gateways and domain controllers have been increasingly introduced. However, these trends may potentially make many critical data opened, attacked and modified by hackers. These days, vehicle security has been significantly required as these vehicle security threats are related to the human life like drivers and pedestrians. Threat modeling is process of secure software development lifecycle which is developed by Microsoft. It is a systematic approach for analyzing the potential threat in software and identifying the security risk associated with software. Through threat modeling, security risk is be mitigated and eliminated. In vehicle software System, one of vulnerability can affect critical problem about safety. An approach from experience and hacking cases is not enough for analyzing the potential threat and preparing new hacking attack.
Technical Paper

Experimental Setup Enabling Self-Confrontation Interviews for Modelling Naturalistic Driving Behavior

2019-04-02
2019-01-1082
Behavioral models of traffic actors have a potential of unlocking sophisticated safety features and mitigating several challenges of urban automated driving. Intuitively, volunteers driving on routes of daily commuting in their private vehicles are the preferred source of information to be captured by data collection system. Such dataset can then serve as a basis for identifying efficient methods of context representation and parameterization of behavioral models. This paper describes the experimental setup supporting the development of driver behavioral models within the SIMUSAFE project. In particular, the paper presents an IoT data acquisition and analysis infrastructure supporting self-confrontation interviews with drivers. The proposed retrofit system was installed in private vehicles of volunteers in two European cities. Wherever possible, the setup used open source software and electronic components available on consumer market.
Technical Paper

Hardware/Software Co-Design of an Automotive Embedded Firewall

2017-03-28
2017-01-1659
The automotive industry experiences a major change as vehicles are gradually becoming a part of the Internet. Security concepts based on the closed-world assumption cannot be deployed anymore due to a constantly changing adversary model. Automotive Ethernet as future in-vehicle network and a new E/E Architecture have different security requirements than Ethernet known from traditional IT and legacy systems. In order to achieve a high level of security, a new multi-layer approach in the vehicle which responds to special automotive requirements has to be introduced. One essential layer of this holistic security concept is to restrict non-authorized access by the deployment of embedded firewalls. This paper addresses the introduction of automotive firewalls into the next-generation domain architecture with a focus on partitioning of its features in hardware and software.
Magazine

MOBILITY ENGINEERING: March 2018

2018-03-01
Advancing toward driverless cars Autonomous-driving technology is set to revolutionize the auto industry. But getting to a true "driverless" future will be an iterative process based on merging numerous individual innovations. Overcoming the challenges of HCCI combustion Homogenous-charge compression ignition (HCCI) holds considerable promise to unlock new IC-engine efficiencies. But HCCI's advantages bring engineering obstacles, particularly emissions control. Simulation for tractor cabin vibroacoustic optimization Method of identifying and stopping an electronically controlled diesel engine in runaway mode Electrification not a one-size-fits-all solution Efforts in the off-highway industry have been under way for decades, but electrification technology still faces implementation challenges. 700 miles, hands-free! GM's Super Cruise turns Cadillac drivers into passengers in a well-engineered first step toward greater vehicle autonomy.
Magazine

SAE Off-Highway Engineering: December 2, 2016

2016-12-02
Autonomous plows ahead Agriculture, construction, mining-even marine-are advancing autonomous technology to improve the productivity and safety of vehicles on the job. Expediting engine design Simulation tools drive development of the most complex, fuel- efficient and powerful engines ever seen in off-highway applications. Industry 4.0: The smart factory arrives The plants that produce vehicles and their high-tech systems are increasingly employing intelligent systems, Big Data and advanced analytics to improve quality, safety and efficiency. The future is not so far-off Enhanced Cat 3500 engine boosts power 20%, trims fuel usage by 10% Phase 2 GHG rules driver for advanced technology, alternative fuels Eaton demonstrates waste heat recovery, variable valve actuation for HD diesels Hyliion develops add-on hybrid system for semi-trailers that reduces fuel consumption by 30% Tech-heavy Iveco Z Truck concept spawns 29 patents EPA's Grundler talks Phase 2 regs
Technical Paper

Safety Development Trend of the Intelligent and Connected Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0089
Automotive safety is always the focus of consumers, the selling point of products, the focus of technology. In order to achieve automatic driving, interconnection with the outside world, human-automatic system interaction, the security connotation of intelligent and connected vehicles (ICV) changes: information security is the basis of its security. Functional safety ensures that the system is operating properly. Behavioral safety guarantees a secure interaction between people and vehicles. Passive security should not be weakened, but should be strengthened based on new constraints. In terms of information safety, the threshold for attacking cloud, pipe, and vehicle information should be raised to ensure that ICV system does not fail due to malicious attacks. The cloud is divided into three cloud platforms according to functions: ICVs private cloud, TSP cloud, public cloud.
Technical Paper

The Autonomous Vehicle Challenges for Emergent Market

2017-11-07
2017-36-0436
Technological advances in both hardware (Nano-electronics) and software (artificial intelligence) are increasingly influencing our lives on equipment and devices that surrounds us and more recently our means of locomotion. The autonomous vehicles, which previously appeared only in movie scenes, can already be found in our environment, such as ships, cars, trucks, tractors and aero engines. Considering the autonomous vehicles, its launching is much closer than we could imagine, since many companies signalize having the conditions to launch them in a large scale within 2018 year. The insertion of this type of technology opens a range of advances related to vehicles and the environment in which it is inserted. The communication between the vehicles, roads and people can be highlighted. These advances reveal a series of benefits to the customer such as free time during the route, higher safety, etc.
Technical Paper

Total Vehicle Integration and Design - Journey to Electrification, Digitization and Connectivity Leading to Autonomy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0003
Total vehicle integration and design is a complex process and deals with interactions of many subsystems. The subsystems in a vehicle not only have to perform their role but interfaces between the subsystems must be well understood to design for all the interactions. The global automotive market is following electrification, digitization and connectivity trends that eventually lead to Autonomy. Therefore, the vehicle integration design process needs to include these new use cases of these trends. The process starts with establishing the top-level vehicle metrics relative to key deliverables of the vehicle ranging from providing comfortable environment to the driver to good performance. The process of establishing vehicle level metrics is not trivial and quite often must be derived from the customer verbatim. Frequently, there are conflicting requirements and priority must be given to one over another.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Facing Automated Vehicles and Insurance

2020-08-05
EPR2020015
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report explores how the deployment of automated vehicles (AVs) will affect the insurance industry and the principles of liability that underly the structure of insurance in the US. As we trade human drivers for suites of sensors and computers, who (or what) is responsible when there is a crash? The owner of the vehicle? The automaker that built it? The programmer that wrote the code? Insurers have over 100 years of experience and data covering human drivers, but with only a few years’ worth of information on AVs – how can they properly predict the true risks associated with their deployment? Without an understanding of the nature and risks of AVs, how can the government agencies that regulate the insurance industry provide proper oversight? Do the challenges AVs present require a total reworking of our insurance and liability systems, or can our current structures be adapted to fit them with minor modifications?
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Determining Appropriate Modeling Fidelity for Automated Driving Systems Simulation

2019-12-06
EPR2019007
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the challenges of achieving optimal model fidelity for developing, validating, and verifying vehicles capable of automated driving. Three main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, assuring that simulation models represent their real-world counterparts, how to quantify simulation model fidelity, and how to assess system risk. Second, developing a universal simulation model interface and language for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensors. Third, characterizing and determining the different requirements for sensor, vehicle, environment, and human driver models. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies.
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