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Technical Paper

Views on Future Space Exploration

1968-02-01
680375
Two courses for the future exist - earth orbital missions or manned planetary exploration. Defense, one of the original objectives of the space program, is best served by satellite and near-earth manned operations. ...Despite the success of the space sciences satellites and the imminent payoff of the Apollo manned missions, we have seen a de-emphasis on the space program. ...Despite the success of the space sciences satellites and the imminent payoff of the Apollo manned missions, we have seen a de-emphasis on the space program. De-emphasis, here, really means no new starts rather than cut-backs in existing programs.
Technical Paper

Deep Space Mission Radiation Shielding Optimization

2001-07-09
2001-01-2326
Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. ...The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In the present report, we present methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of lunar and Mars missions.
Article

ISS launches largest satellite to date to test active debris removal

2018-07-05
Astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) have launched RemoveDEBRIS, the first satellite with space debris-removal capabilities and the largest satellite ever deployed from the ISS. ...RemoveDEBRIS, a low Earth orbit test bed for determining the efficacy of active debris removal (ADR) systems, is a multinational effort involving space agencies, aerospace experts, and technologies from throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, and the U.S.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Radiation Environments in Deep Space

2007-07-09
2007-01-3114
Both humans and onboard radiosensitive systems (electronics, materials, payloads and experiments) are exposed to the deleterious effects of the harsh space radiations found in the space environment. The purpose of this paper is to present the space radiation environment extended to deep space based on environment models for the moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn and compare these radiation environments with the earth's radiation environment, which is used as a comparative baseline. ...The purpose of this paper is to present the space radiation environment extended to deep space based on environment models for the moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn and compare these radiation environments with the earth's radiation environment, which is used as a comparative baseline. ...The purpose of this paper is to present the space radiation environment extended to deep space based on environment models for the moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn and compare these radiation environments with the earth's radiation environment, which is used as a comparative baseline. The space radiation environment consists of high-energy protons and electrons that are magnetically “trapped” in planetary bodies that have an intrinsic magnetic field; this is the case for earth, Jupiter, and Saturn (the moon and Mars do not have a magnetic field).
Technical Paper

Space Radiation Shielding strategies and Requirements for Deep Space Missions

1989-07-01
891433
The ultimate limitation to manned exploration of the solar system will likely be cumulative exposure of the crews to penetrating space radiations. ...The ultimate limitation to manned exploration of the solar system will likely be cumulative exposure of the crews to penetrating space radiations. The two major sources of these radiations during deep-space missions are solar particle events (flares) and galactic cosmic rays. ...Consisting of deterministic space radiation transport computer codes and accurate models of their nuclear interaction inputs, these calculational tools are employed to estimate the composition and thicknesses of candidate shield materials required for spacecraft equipment and crew protection.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Support Equipment in Space Exploration

1962-01-01
620311
With support equipment now being needed in space operation, a radical change is being made to the support industry. This paper describes these changes in respect to hydraulic support equipment for space applications. ...This paper describes these changes in respect to hydraulic support equipment for space applications. To meet new requirements for present ground missile servicing equipment, new units of higher performance are required. ...Other types of nonstandard hydraulic controls for space support would be the use of pulse rockets for both vehicle and personnel movements.
Technical Paper

The Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle

1967-02-01
670184
The Deep Submergence Systems Project was undertaken after the Thresher disaster to review the Navy's work in the following four areas-Man-in-the-Sea; large object salvage system; deep ocean search, investigation, and small object recovery; and submarine location, escape, and rescue system. ...The Deep Submergence Systems Project was undertaken after the Thresher disaster to review the Navy's work in the following four areas-Man-in-the-Sea; large object salvage system; deep ocean search, investigation, and small object recovery; and submarine location, escape, and rescue system. ...Of prime importance in this program is the development of the Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV) which is the key element of the submarine rescue system.
Technical Paper

Deep Submergence Materials

1967-02-01
670533
A detailed review of the performance under high hydrostatic pressure of the most important deep submergence materials is covered by this paper. Special attention is given to materials with meaningful applications such as titanium, high strength steels and filament wound plastics for structures; buoyancy materials for use external to the pressure capsule and encapsulating materials for external machinery and components. ...The talk covers in some detail the performance of these materials and touches on several novel approaches such as new techniques for welding and fabrication, methods for encapsulation and new concepts for deep submergence buoyancy systems. The fabrication of high strength and exotic metals under field conditions is discussed in detail and several examples of innovative fabricating techniques are illustrated.
Technical Paper

Silver/Zinc Battery Power for Deep Ocean Vehicles

1969-02-01
690728
The need for deep diving submersibles, the advantages of batteries located outside the hull as power sources, and the place of silver/zinc batteries in this application are summarized. ...State-of-the-art capabilities of silver/zinc deep ocean batteries are illustrated from data on several operational cells and batteries. It is concluded that this type of battery is suitable for deep ocean use and has the advantage of being already operational. ...It is concluded that this type of battery is suitable for deep ocean use and has the advantage of being already operational.
Technical Paper

H/O as the Key to Survival for Humans in Deep Space

1988-07-01
881054
Astronaut missions to Mars call for voyages remote from Earth on unprecedented scales of time and distance. Mission success will center around the management of certain critical compounds containing the atoms H and O. This generalization is true for both the life support systems and propulsion systems (for early missions at least). Mission lengths of one to three years allow virtually no possibility of timely rescue. Nonetheless, even with one or more major system failures, contingency mode H/O utilization can provide the key to survival on the road back to Earth.
Technical Paper

Military Significance of Deep Diving Vehicles

1963-01-01
630253
The deepest known trench in the oceans is Challenger Deep at 35,800 ft. However, only about 2% of the oceans measure deeper than 20,000 ft. Present-day submersibles are generally limited to depths less than 400 ft.
Technical Paper

Manned Deep Submersibles as Functional Systems

1963-01-01
630254
Man’s knowledge of outer space far surpasses his knowledge of the oceans’ depths, but the development of functional submersibles has provided new pathways to factual information of suboceanic phenomena.
Technical Paper

Program Architecture for the Robotic Exploration of Mars

2001-07-09
2001-01-2137
NASA has recently completed the definition of a new architecture for the exploration of Mars. This paper will present a summary of the new Mars Exploration Program (MEP) architecture, along with a description of the resulting mission queue and science investigations.
Technical Paper

Development of the Compact Flash Evaporator System for Exploration

2007-07-09
2007-01-3204
Three alternative heat sink technologies are being developed under Thermal Control for Advanced Capabilities within the Exploration Technology Development Program. One of them is CFES, a spray cooling concept related to the current Space Shuttle Orbiter Flash Evaporator System (FES). ...One of them is CFES, a spray cooling concept related to the current Space Shuttle Orbiter Flash Evaporator System (FES). In the CFES concept, water is sprayed on the outside of a flat plate heat exchanger, through which flows the vehicle's primary vehicle heat transfer fluid. ...The steam is then exhausted to space in an open-loop system. Design, fabrication and testing of the CFES at NASA's Glenn Research Center will be reported.
Technical Paper

Longer Range Space Exploration Possibilities

1968-02-01
680379
As the Apollo Program reaches an active flight phase it becomes important to identify the alternatives which seem most practical for space exploration of the future. Steps beyond the Apollo Lunar Landing which will provide flexible capabilities for missions following the 1970 time period are discussed. ...With the option of manned exploration of Mars and Venus, including exobiological and geological surface exploration on Mars, promise of much scientific return appears within our operational grasp. ...This experience will establish man's capability to operate effectively for extended periods and provide enhancement of experimental space activities. This phase is treated as a logical space program element preceding actual accomplishment of manned missions to the nearby planets.
Technical Paper

Long Term Life Support for Space Exploration

1990-07-01
901277
NASA has updated its planning baseline for these missions, (1) and has identified improved life support as one of the key capabilities needed to enable long duration missions of exploration. This paper discusses the question of life support for the exploration missions of the future, and suggests a strategy for the development of these critical systems. ...Recent Presidential directives have intensified the study of human participation in Solar System Exploration within the United States. NASA has updated its planning baseline for these missions, (1) and has identified improved life support as one of the key capabilities needed to enable long duration missions of exploration.
Technical Paper

Electrical System Options for Space Exploration

1991-09-01
912065
The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) will need a wide variety of manned systems with requirements significantly different than those for existing systems. ...This paper discusses the need for a space power utility concept, and examines the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems. ...Almost all existing space power systems distribute low voltage direct current. Although they have been very successful, increasing power system requirements in recent years have exposed their inherent limitations and led to the proposal of a number of alternatives including high voltage dc, and ac at various frequencies.
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