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Technical Paper

An Analysis of EDR Data in Kawasaki Ninja 300 (EX300) Motorcycles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1436
Various electronic control units from Kawasaki Ninja 300 motorcycles were tested in-situ in order to heuristically examine the capabilities and behavior of the event data recorders (EDR). The relevant hexadecimal data was downloaded from the ECU and translated using known and historically proven applications. The hexadecimal translations were then confirmed using data acquisition systems as well as the Kawasaki Diagnostic Software (KDS). Numerous tests were performed to establish the algorithms which cause the EDR to record data. It was determined that the EDR recording “trigger” was caused by the activation of the tip-over sensor, which in turn shuts the engine off. In addition, specific conditions must be met with regards to the rear wheel rotation prior to engine shut-down.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of EDR Data in Kawasaki Ninja ZX-6R and ZX-10R Motorcycles Equipped with ABS (KIBS) and Traction Control (KTRC)

2018-04-03
2018-01-1443
Electronic control units (ECU) from Kawasaki Ninja ZX-6R and ZX-10R motorcycles were tested in order to examine the capabilities and behavior of the event data recorders (EDR). All relevant hexadecimal data was downloaded from the ECU and translated using known and historically proven applications. The hexadecimal translations were then confirmed using data acquisition systems as well as the Kawasaki Diagnostic Software (KDS)1. Numerous tests were performed to establish the algorithms which cause the EDR to record data. Issues of sensor and power loss were analyzed and discussed. Additionally, data sets were studied that involved maximum deceleration from ABS brakes. Similarly, data sets that involved traction control intervention were studied and analyzed. It was determined that the EDR recording ‘trigger’ was caused by the activation of the tip-over sensor, which in turn shuts the engine off.
Technical Paper

Using Vehicle EDR Data to Calculate Motorcycle Delta-V in Motorcycle-Vehicle Lateral Front End Impacts

2020-04-14
2020-01-0885
This research focuses on the use of Event Data Recorders (EDR) to assist in calculating speed loss or ΔV undergone by a motorcycle in a broadside type impact into a vehicle. If the struck vehicle has EDR data, this could be a useful tool in calculating motorcycle ΔV or corroborating motorcycle ΔV calculations from crush or other methodologies. Certain parameters critical to calculation of motorcycle ΔV must be considered, including the appropriate effective mass to use for the motorcycle/rider combination. This study used crash test data to determine a method of applying parameter values to accurately calculate motorcycle ΔV in a motorcycle-vehicle collision. In this study, three crash tests were performed in which a motorcycle with a dummy rider traveling in the range of 42 to 51 mph collided into the right front corner of a vehicle traveling between 5 and 16 mph.
Journal Article

An Analysis of Sport Bike Motorcycle Dynamics during Front Wheel Over-Braking

2019-04-02
2019-01-0426
There is extensive literature on motorcycle skid/brake to stop testing on a host of motorcycle types, rider experience, brake system configurations and the associated deceleration rates. Very little information exists on deceleration rates involved with over-braking the front wheel. The subject of this paper addresses the deceleration rates of sport bike type motorcycles during over-braking of the front wheel. Based on the physics of a two-wheeled vehicle like the motorcycle, once the front wheel is over-braked and becomes locked, the rider has very little time to recover from the skid and often times falls. Another over-braking scenario, especially on sport bike type motorcycles, is the possibility of the rear wheel lifting and pitching over the front wheel. During the initial phase of braking, weight transfer to the front wheel occurs creating a greater level of traction.
Journal Article

Evaluation of General Motors Event Data Recorder Performance in Semi-Trailer Rear Underride Collisions

2020-04-14
2020-01-1328
The objective of this study was to analyze the validity of airbag control module data in semi-trailer rear underride collisions. These impacts involve unusual collision dynamics, including long crash pulses and minimal bumper engagement [1]. For this study, publicly available data from 16 semi-trailer underride guard crash tests performed by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) were used to form conclusions about the accuracy of General Motors airbag control module (ACM) delta-V (ΔV) data in a semi-trailer rear underride scenario. These tests all utilized a 2009 or 2010 Chevrolet Malibu impacting a stationary 48’ or 53’ semi-trailer at a speed of 35 mph. Nine tests were fully overlapped collisions, six were 30% overlapped, and one was 50% overlapped [2]. The IIHS test vehicles were equipped with calibrated 10000 Hz accelerometer units. Event Data Recorder (EDR) data imaged post-accident from the test vehicles were compared to the reference IIHS data.
Journal Article

Bicycle Braking Performance Testing and Analysis

2020-04-14
2020-01-0876
The goal of this study was to determine bicycle braking performance, while considering different brake designs and applications. Eight bicycles were used to perform brake-to-stop tests: two full suspension mountain bikes, two hybrid bikes, one beach cruiser, one BMX bike, one road bike, and one single speed bicycle. The standardized brake testing procedure consisted of rear only brake application and both front and rear brake application. In order to maintain brake application consistency, a single rider performed all series of the brake tests at the same location, within a designated brake zone on dry asphalt. The tests were performed at initial velocities of 11 to 21 mph. For each test, the rider accelerated to the test speed and, upon entering the brake zone, applied maximum braking effort while maintaining a natural upright position in order to minimize lean. The associated skid marks deposited from wheel lock-up were verified, measured, and documented onsite.
Journal Article

Validation of a PC-Crash Multibody Sport Bike Motorcycle Model

2021-04-06
2021-01-0893
PC-Crash is an accident reconstruction program allowing the user to perform simulations with multibody objects that collide or interact with 3D vehicle mesh models. The multibody systems can be a pedestrian, a motorcycle, or a motorcycle with a rider. The multibody systems are comprised of individual rigid bodies connected by joints. The bodies can be of various size and stiffness along with varying coefficients of friction and restitution. Additionally, the joints can be tailored to define pivot types and range of motion. The current motorcycle models in PC-Crash are generic and do not resemble a sport bike type motorcycle. They are only globally scalable such that you cannot adjust length, width, or height independently. However, the user can adjust each body and/or joint individually as needed. A model was created that resembled a modern sport bike motorcycle. In addition, a multibody rider was mounted on the motorcycle in a typical sport bike riding position.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Power Interruption on Electronic Needle-Display Motorcycle Speedometers

2016-04-05
2016-01-1474
Six electronic needle-display speedometers from five different manufacturers were tested in order to determine the behavior of the gauges following a power interruption and impact. Subject motorcycles were accelerated to pre-determined speeds, at which point the speedometer wiring harness was disconnected. The observed results were that the dial indicator would move slightly up, down, or remain in place depending on the model of the speedometer. The observed change of indicated speed was within +/- 10 mph upon power loss. Additionally, the speedometers were subjected to impact testing to further analyze needle movement due to collision forces. Speedometers were attached to a linear drop rail apparatus instrumented with an accelerometer. A minimum acceleration due to impact which could cause needle movement was measured for each speedometer assembly.
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