This technical paper collection focuses on the general topic of combustion engine gaseous emissions (regulated and non-regulated). This includes well-to-wheels CO2 production for alternative technologies, fuel economy and all greenhouse gas emission research. It also includes hydrocarbon species and specific NOx species production over aftertreatment devices as a result of changes in fuel specification and the inclusion of bio-derived components and consideration of secondary emissions production (slip) as a result of aftertreatment.
This paper is aimed at highlighting the issues and challenges, and some control measures of GHG emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) from transport vehicles. The importance of fuel economy improvement on CO2 emission reduction is emphasized as it will be an immediate solution to reduce the emission. ...The role of alternative fuels and vehicles on control of GHG emission is discussed in this paper. The CO2 emission norms proposed by some country are also discussed in detail.
By almost any definition, technology has penetrated the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet significantly in conjunction with the increased stringency of fuel economy and GHG emissions regulations. The physical presence of advanced technology components provides one indication of the efforts taken to reduce emissions, but that alone does not provide a complete measure of the benefits of a particular technology application.
The State of California considers greenhouse gases (GHGs) to be air pollutants and has directed the Air Resources Board to adopt cost effective regulations for GHG emissions from motor vehicles. ...The State of California considers greenhouse gases (GHGs) to be air pollutants and has directed the Air Resources Board to adopt cost effective regulations for GHG emissions from motor vehicles. The northeastern states and Canada through NESCCAF have worked closely with CARB and CO2 equivalent emission regulations have been proposed. ...The eventual status of these regulations may not be clear, but what is clear is that there is a need to develop cost effective technology to reduce GHG emissions. This paper presents such technology. Advances in turbocharging technology relevant to both gasoline and diesel engines are described.
Increasing urbanization, the growing degree of motorization and traffic performance in urban areas and environmental aspects like greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are the motivation for a detailed analysis of personal individual mobility in urban areas, which is presented in this study.
As part of an ongoing assessment of the potential for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of light-duty vehicles, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has implemented an updated methodology for applying the results of full vehicle simulations to the range of vehicles across the entire fleet.
More specific, engines are required to reduce CO2 emissions by 6% compared to GHG phase 1 levels. Next to the GHG emission legislation, more stringent legislation is anticipated in the US to further reduce NOx emissions: a further 90% reduction is targeted as soon as 2024 compared to 2010 standard. ...Increasing efforts to minimize global warming has led to regulation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of automotive applications. The US is frontrunner regarding implementation of GHG related legislation with the introduction of GHG phase 1 and phase 2, ultimately targeting a 40% fuel consumption reduction in 2027 compared to 2010 on vehicle level. ...The US is frontrunner regarding implementation of GHG related legislation with the introduction of GHG phase 1 and phase 2, ultimately targeting a 40% fuel consumption reduction in 2027 compared to 2010 on vehicle level.
PHEVs recharging from the average electricity generation mix of China provide 16%-29% fossil energy consumption reduction, 39%-52% petroleum energy consumption reduction and 5%-26% greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction compared with conventional gasoline vehicle. The range of the results is primarily attributed to the different all electric range (AER) and PHEV types (power-split versus series designs). ...Fossil energy consumption and GHG emissions of PHEVs recharging from six different interprovincial power grids show 9%-24% and 12%-29% differences respectively. ...PHEV has large potential to reduce petroleum fuel use, but GHG emissions depend on the electricity generation mix for battery recharging. The potential for reducing GHG emissions could be larger if electricity in China were generated using low-carbon sources.
From its database of engine and vehicle benchmarking data EPA identified the most efficient, engines, transmissions and vehicle technologies, and then used ALPHA to model a midsized car incorporating combinations of these existing technologies which minimize GHG emissions. In a similar analysis, ALPHA was used to estimate the GHG emissions from future low-GHG technology packages potentially available in model year 2025. ...The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. ...In preparation for the midterm evaluation of the light-duty GHG emission standards for model years 2022-2025, EPA is refining and revalidating ALPHA using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles.
In recognizing the potential for large, damaging impacts from climate change, California enacted Executive Order S-03-05, requiring a reduction in statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. Given that the transportation light-duty vehicle (LDV) segment accounts for 28% of the state's GHG emissions today, it will be difficult to meet the 2050 goal unless a portfolio of near-zero carbon transportation solutions is pursued. ...Given that the transportation light-duty vehicle (LDV) segment accounts for 28% of the state's GHG emissions today, it will be difficult to meet the 2050 goal unless a portfolio of near-zero carbon transportation solutions is pursued. ...This report summarizes the results and conclusions of a modeling exercise that simulated GHG emissions from the LDV sector to 2050 in California. Specifically, the analysis addressed two policy questions: (1) what fraction of the on-road fleet in 2050 needs to be zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) 1 in order for the LDV sector to achieve an 80% GHG reduction, and (2) what annual ZEV sales are necessary between 2015 and 2025 to initiate these fleet volumes?
In recent years, automakers have been developing various types of environmentally friendly vehicles such as hybrid (HV), plug-in hybrid (PHV), electric (EV), and fuel cell (FCV) vehicles to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there are few commercial solar vehicles on the market. One of the reasons why automakers have not focused attention on this area is because the benefits of installing solar modules on vehicles under real conditions are unclear. ...This paper describes the benefits and desirable specifications of solar vehicles from the standpoint of well-to-wheel GHG emissions reduction. This study assumed that solar modules would be installed on HVs equipped with extra battery capacity for solar power storage. ...To summarize the results, total well-to-wheel GHG emissions were reduced by 30% when 1,000 W solar modules and a 4 kWh battery were installed on all vehicles, compared to a reference case with neither solar modules nor a battery.
When considered along with Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) requirements, the proposed Air Resource Board (ARB) nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission limit of 0.02 g/bhp-hr will be very challenging to achieve as the trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx emissions is not favorable. ...Each of these engine models met the 2027 Phase 2 GHG emission standards but used a different combination of technologies, including downsizing, downspeeding, variable compression ratio (VCR), cylinder deactivation, and turbocompounding. ...The results show that with appropriate selection of engine and aftertreatment technology packages, the 2027 Phase 2 GHG emission standards and the proposed 2024 ultra-low NOx emission standards can be achieved simultaneously.
This is the second of two papers that examine the future effectiveness of the California greenhouse gas “GHG” program and the federal fuel economy program established in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (“EISA 2007”) in controlling greenhouse gases. ...This paper applies those fuel economy estimates to examine the impact of the California and federal programs on lifecycle emissions of GHGs and carbon dioxide (“CO2”). EISA 2007 not only proposes to improve car and LDT fuel economy, but it also proposes to reduce GHGs through its Renewable Fuel Standards (“RFS”) provisions, which are likely to lead to substantial expansion in the use of 85% ethanol gasoline blends (E85). ...EISA 2007 not only proposes to improve car and LDT fuel economy, but it also proposes to reduce GHGs through its Renewable Fuel Standards (“RFS”) provisions, which are likely to lead to substantial expansion in the use of 85% ethanol gasoline blends (E85).
The aim of this study is to evaluate the land requirement, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions of microalgal biodiesel (M-BD) and Jatropha curcas seeds (J-BD) based biodiesel from the perspective of life cycle assessment (LCA). ...The well to pump (WTP) stage for microalgal biodiesel had higher fossil energy requirement but lower petroleum energy consumption and GHG emissions compared to Jatropha curcas and conventional diesel (CD). The WTP energy efficiency for J-BD100 and M-BD 100 were 26% and 17.4%, respectively. ...The WTW results showed good performance for MBD100 on petroleum consumption and GHG emissions. The high fossil energy use for microalgae BD100 was attributed to the large inputs for microalgae growth, including fertilizer and process fuels.
This paper focused on the fuel consumption and GHG reductions. The fuel consumption was determined by volumetric, mass and energy per km travelled and per ton of GVW. ...The substitution ratio of PD by the C2G Ultra Biofuel is 86∼91% and 74∼81% for hot start and cold start trips respectively. The GHG reductions by the C2G Ultra Biofuel are 85∼89% and 73∼78% for hot start and cold start trips respectively.
The interest in Natural Gas (NG) as alternative fuel for transportation is constantly growing, mostly due to its large availability and lower environmental impact with respect to gasoline or diesel fuel. In this scenario, the application of the Dual Fuel (DF) Diesel- Natural Gas (NG) combustion concept to light duty engines can represent an important route to increment the diffusion of natural gas use. Many studies have proven the benefits of DF with respect to conventional diesel combustion in terms of CO2, NOx, PM and PN emissions, with the main drawback of high unburned hydrocarbon, mainly at low/partial engine loads. This last aspect still prevents the application of DF mode to small displacement engines. In the present work, a 2.0 L Euro 5 compliant diesel engine, equipped with an advanced electronic closed-loop combustion control (CLCC) system, has been set up to operate in DF mode and tested on a dyno test bench.
A SI probe car, defined here as a normal commercial car equipped with GPS, in-vehicle FTIR tailpipe emission measurement and real time fuel consumption measurement systems, and temperature measurements, was used for measuring greenhouse gas emissions including CO2, N2O and CH4 under real world urban driving conditions. The vehicle used was a EURO4 emission compliant SI car. Two real world driving cycles/routes were designed and employed for the tests, which were located in a densely populated area and a busy major road representing a typical urban road network. Eight trips were conducted at morning rush hours, day time non-peak traffic periods and evening off peak time respectively. The aim is to investigate the impacts of traffic conditions such as road congestion, grade and turnings on fuel consumption, engine thermal efficiency and emissions.
The Global Warming Potential (GWP) was evaluated using IPCC data for all three measured GHGs. The results show that N₂O and CH₄ can contribute to approximately 6~10% of GWP during cold start due to high GWP index, though their emissions were in a much lower magnitude. ...The influence of ambient temperatures on GHG emissions and GWP were assessed. The research provided a better understanding of traffic-related greenhouse gas emission profile in urban area and will contribute to the control of climate change.