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Technical Paper

Integration of Charting into the Glass Cockpit

Pilots of aircraft flown in instrument conditions, during periods of darkness, or restricted visibility are not provided with information that is essential to maintain the situational awareness required for the safe operation of their aircraft. The pilot's critical need for this information is neither widely perceived nor being quickly acted upon. This paper describes these information deficiencies and suggests methods of utilizing the pictorial display of electronic charting information, coupled with a precision navigation device such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), to satisfy this critical need.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Associated with Glass Cockpit Design

The second generation glass cockpit is now being developed following the success and acceptance of the Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS) in the aviation marketplace. ...Along with this new generation of displays, comes new symbology which is replacing some of the conventional displays now found in the cockpit. This paper outlines the history of the current display symbology and describes what is currently being implemented in the new systems.
Technical Paper

A Glass Cockpit Crew Activity Analysis Tool

This paper describes a model-based tool for analyzing the activities of glass cockpit flight crews. The tool is based on the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS). CATS has been extended to provide visualization and data playback capabilities to support analysis of pilot-automation interaction.
Journal Article

Aircraft Cockpit Window Improvements Enabled by High-Strength Tempered Glass

The objective of this research is to demonstrate the fact that incorporating high-strength tempered glass into cockpit window constructions for commercial aircraft can produce enhanced safety protection from bird strikes and weight savings. ...Thermal glass tempering technology was developed that advances the state of the art for high-strength tempered glass, producing 28 to 36% higher tempered strength. As part of this research, glass probability of failure prediction methodology was introduced for determining the performance of transparencies from simulated bird impact loading. ...Data used in the failure calculation include the total performance strength of highly tempered glass derived from the basic strength of the glass, the temper level, the time duration of the load, and the area under load.
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicle Cockpit and Lightweight Components Development

Solectria Sunrise can be driven 204 miles without recharging1, can achieve a top speed of 75 mph, and can accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 17 seconds.2 TAC has developed the following components made from glass reinforced urethanes or lightweight urethane materials: structural cockpit assembly (including cross car beam and ducting), fascia, bumper beams, and other related components. ...Textron Automotive Company (TAC) has been selected to develop the cockpit instrument panel, front fascia and bumper beam to the Solectria Sunrise, an all composite four-passenger mass-producible electric vehicle funded by Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) and Boston Edison. ...Key technology gains included a one piece structural cockpit which incorporates the ducting, steering column and cross car support into the ambidextrous (right-hand or left-hand drive) instrument panel, instrument panel cluster pods for interchangeability of drivers and passenger side pods, a structural reinforced polyurethane bumper beam without a separate energy absorber which meets the 5 mph impact testing, a filled urethane fascia weighing 7% less than conventional urethane fascia, and the use of low cost tooling.


This standard describes the form, fit, function and interfaces of an airborne printer capable of communicating with multiple systems one at a time. The printer contains the circuitry for acquisition, buffering and processing of coded alphanumeric messages for print-out on half-width paper.


This document provides guidance for the development and installation of a Cockpit Voice Recorders (CVR) with solid-state memory. Supplement 6 provides the following: " The optional interfaces to data link services and On-Board Maintenance System (OMS) were revised to clarify that if the optional interface is implemented, then it shall be implemented in a specific way. " The power input section was revised to clarity the need for the CVR to be designed to accept 115 Vac power and 28 Vdc power from the aircraft. " The time correlation requirement was revised to specify that the CVR should receive its time signal from the same source as the Flight Data Recorder (FDR). " The OMS interface was updated to describe the correct ARINC 429 Sign Status Matrix (SSM) encoding for new CVR designs.


This Characteristic provides guidance for the development and installation of a new generation of Cockpit Voice Recorders (CVRs) using solid-state memory. This document supersedes the earlier ARINC Characteristic 557.
Technical Paper


The opinions and statements expressed herein are those of the writer and are not official views of the Navy Department or Associated Services.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Drivers Behind Next Generation AV2020 Cockpit Display

The efficiency of the glass cockpit paradigm has faded away with the densification of the aeronautical environment. Today's problem lies with “non-defective aircraft” monitored by “perfectly trained crews” still involved in fatal accidents.

Cockpit Display of Data Linked Weather Information

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) addresses the information content for the electronic presentation of data linked weather Meteorological (MET) information used in the cockpit. It defines guidelines for the electronic presentation of MET information (including text, graphics, textures, icons, and symbology) to the flight crew. ...This ARP is applicable to certified equipment for the electronic display (whether installed or portable) of MET information in the cockpit. This ARP also provides a set of symbols that illustrate the depiction of data linked MET information on flight deck display systems such as Navigation Displays, Multi-function Displays, and Electronic Flight Bags.

Crystallized Glass Ceramic

This specification covers one type of crystallized glass ceramic in the form of cast and pressed shapes.
Technical Paper

Making the Cockpit Practical for the Pilot

It appears that these pilots have definite ideas on the improvements that are needed in cockpits, discussed by the author under the following headings: 1. Cockpit window layout (including provisions for all-weather visibility). 2. ...THE safety and dependability of scheduled air transportation depends, in part, on how practical is the cockpit in which the pilots spend their time and carry on their functions while in flight. The author of this paper, himself a pilot, has compiled here information gained from a questionnaire answered by representatives from every scheduled airline in the country. ...Instrument panel arrangement. 3. Cockpit lighting. 4. Pilot comfort (including adequate seats, ventilation, and heating). 5. Type, location, and accessibility of controls.