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Technical Paper

More Electric Aircraft: "Tube and Wing" Hybrid Electric Distributed Propulsion with Superconducting and Conventional Electric Machines

2013-09-17
2013-01-2306
The focus of the work was to study how hybrid propulsion could improve efficiency of airport terminal area operations; in other words, what improvements could be provided by TeDP during the first and last 5% of a mission. ...Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) describes a power train consisting of a turboshaft engine which is used solely to provide electrical power through a generator to electric motors driving multiple propulsive fans which are distributed above, below, or inside a wing. ...Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) describes a power train consisting of a turboshaft engine which is used solely to provide electrical power through a generator to electric motors driving multiple propulsive fans which are distributed above, below, or inside a wing.
Technical Paper

Robustness Modelling of Complex Systems - Application to the Initialisation of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1231
The approaches are demonstrated by their application to the system initialisation of the propulsion control system of a hybrid electric vehicle. The hybrid system initialisation process is discussed in terms of the key objectives and the technical implementation, illustrating the level of complexity underlying a simple high level requirement. ...The hybrid system initialisation process is discussed in terms of the key objectives and the technical implementation, illustrating the level of complexity underlying a simple high level requirement. The hybrid system initialisation model structure is presented in the form of a set of interlinked state-charts representing the five electronic control units and two control network systems which are the key system elements.
Book

Advances in Electric Propulsion

2017-05-18
With those challenges in mind, research and development of more efficient and electric propulsion systems will expand. Fuel-cell technology is but one example that addresses such emission and resource challenges, and others, including negligible acoustic emissions and the potential to leverage current infrastructure models. ...Additionally, measures such as electric/conventional hybrid configurations will ultimately increase efficiencies and knowledge of electric systems while minimizing industrial costs. ...Requirements for greater flight time, stealth characteristics, and thrust-to-power ratios adds urgency to the development of efficient propulsion methods for applications such as UAVs, which looks to technologies such as asymmetrical capacitors to enhance electric propulsion efficiency. This book will take the reader through various technologies that will enable a more-electric aircraft future, as well as design methods and certification requirements of more-electric engines.
Standard

Architecture Examples for Electrified Propulsion Aircraft

2022-08-01
CURRENT
AIR8678
The application of electric power for aircraft propulsion can take a variety of forms, ranging from partial electric to full electric. ...The application of electric power for aircraft propulsion can take a variety of forms, ranging from partial electric to full electric. The introduction of electric engines to drive propulsors, along with the variety of available methods to generate electricity and store energy offers great degree of new design freedom for next-generation aircraft and aircraft architectures. ...While providing these example architectures, this document will develop common definitions for the elements of the architectures by defining: 1 The elements of electrified propulsion architectures, including any dedicated power generation and distribution systems as well as energy storage elements. 2 The interfaces to/from the electrified propulsion system. 3 The interfaces within the electrified propulsion system. 4 Electrical energy management and storage architecture of an electrified propulsion system.
Standard

Nomenclature and Definitions for Electrified Propulsion Aircraft

2022-08-01
CURRENT
ARP8676
Create and publish a list of terms relevant to electrified propulsion aircraft with summary text descriptions. The terms and descriptions will not provide full explanations, diagrams, and other detailed technical descriptions. ...This document defines the relevant terms and abbreviations related to the design, development, and use of electrified propulsion in aircraft. This definition is provided to enable a consistent use of technical language throughout the standards developed by the E-40 committee.
Technical Paper

ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS

1960-01-01
600043
The vapor drives a turbine, which operates an electric generator. 3. The electric power is used to ionize and accelerate the propellant — a liquid alkali metal — which produces the thrust. ...The electric power is used to ionize and accelerate the propellant — a liquid alkali metal — which produces the thrust. Electric propulsion systems can be used in a wide variety of space missions, including satellite sustainers, lunar cargo transport, and interplanetary missions.* ...THE NUCLEAR turboelectric ion propulsion system operates as follows: 1. A nuclear reactor supplies thermal energy to a vapor boiler. 2.
Technical Paper

Energy Storage for Commercial Hybrid Electric Aircraft

2016-09-20
2016-01-2014
Energy storage options for a hybrid electric commercial single aisle aircraft were investigated. The propulsion system features twin Geared Turbofan™ engines in which each low speed spool is assisted by a 2,500 HP electric motor during takeoff and climb. ...The propulsion system features twin Geared Turbofan™ engines in which each low speed spool is assisted by a 2,500 HP electric motor during takeoff and climb. During cruise, the aircraft is powered solely by the turbine engines which are sized for efficient operation during this mission phase. ...Energy storage in fuels was also considered along with various converters sized to produce a targeted quantity of electric power. The fuel and converters include fuel cells (both proton exchange membrane and solid oxide operating on hydrogen or on jet fuel) and a turbogenerator (jet fuel or LNG).
Technical Paper

Requirements for Space Propulsion Systems

1968-02-01
680360
This paper explores some of the many considerations which enter into the choice of a specific spacecraft propulsion system for a particular application. The environment and its influence on propulsion requirements are discussed in general terms, characteristics of several propellant combinations are presented and an example of a typical ambitious mission is used. ...A general conclusion is that the state of the art of spacecraft propulsion technology must advance on a broad front in the time period prior to project definition in order to provide the technological options which allow significant optimization of the complete project propulsion system. ...A general conclusion is that the state of the art of spacecraft propulsion technology must advance on a broad front in the time period prior to project definition in order to provide the technological options which allow significant optimization of the complete project propulsion system.
Technical Paper

Aircraft electric propulsion technology review – A shift from turbofan to the ethrust era

2018-09-03
2018-36-0096
Following the electrification trend observed in the automotive industry, the idea of an electric propulsion aircraft has also drawn attention and investments from a range of aviation industry stakeholders (including the world's largest aerospace companies) focused on both fuel burning reduction and environmental performance improvement (greenhouse gases (GHG), pollutants and noise emissions) potential of electric propulsion technology. Electric propulsion has the potential to provide more efficient, cleaner, quieter and more profitable aviation services, with potential benefits to both airlines and passengers. ...Following the electrification trend observed in the automotive industry, the idea of an electric propulsion aircraft has also drawn attention and investments from a range of aviation industry stakeholders (including the world's largest aerospace companies) focused on both fuel burning reduction and environmental performance improvement (greenhouse gases (GHG), pollutants and noise emissions) potential of electric propulsion technology. ...From a technical perspective , the aviation propulsion electrification strategy might involves the integration of electric powetrains into aircrafts into the i) all electric; ii) hybrid and iii) turboelectric approach.
Book

Electric Motors for Hybrid and Pure Electric Vehicles 2015-2025: Land, Water, Air

2014-11-01
The information is especially important as hybrid vehicles may have the electric motor near the conventional engine or its exhaust, and this may mean they need to tolerate temperatures never before encountered in pure electric vehicles. ...The information is especially important as hybrid vehicles may have the electric motor near the conventional engine or its exhaust, and this may mean they need to tolerate temperatures never before encountered in pure electric vehicles. Motors for highly price-sensitive markets such as electric bikes, scooters, e-rickshaws and micro EVs avoid the price hikes of neodymium and other rare earths in the magnets. ...The electric vehicle business will approach a massive $500 billion in 2025 with the traction motors segment capturing over $25 billion.
Journal Article

Propulsion System Component Considerations for NASA N3-X Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion System

2012-10-22
2012-01-2165
To achieve this goal, NASA has analyzed a hybrid body wing aircraft with a turboelectric distributed propulsion system. The propulsion system must be designed to operate at the highest possible efficiency in order to meet the reduced fuel burn goal. ...High density components are required to minimize the weight of the electric propulsion system while meeting the high power demand. Minimizing the electric propulsion system weight helps to reduce the amount of fuel required for propulsion. ...NASA's N3-X aircraft design under the Research and Technology for Aerospace Propulsion Systems (RTAPS) study is being designed to meet the N+3 goals, one of which is the reduction of aircraft fuel burn by 70% or better.
Technical Paper

ELECTRIC PROPULSION AND POWER REQUIREMENTS FOR SPACE VEHICLES

1960-01-01
600285
Electric propulsion fundamentals are briefly covered along with several types of electric propulsion thrust devices and their characteristics. ...Several possible missions are listed which could be applicable for electric propulsion. Power requirements are presented in parametric form for the specific missions of a low-altitude sustainer and orbit transfers.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Asymmetrical Capacitors for Electric Propulsion

2014-09-16
2014-01-2221
Investigation into electric propulsion continues to be an area of hopeful research since the pioneering age of aviation. ...Experimental studies on electric propulsion by virtue of asymmetrical electrodes, on a micro scale, have yielded potentially superior efficiency ratings when compared to currently adopted methods. ...This method of propulsion is unique and possesses several features that differentiate it from conventional methods of propulsion.
Technical Paper

An Integral Nuclear Power and Propulsion System Concept

1992-08-03
929345
A trade study comparing the overall benefits in placing large payloads to GEO with the nuclear electric propulsion option shows superiority of nuclear thermal propulsion. The resulting savings in orbital transfer time and the substantial reduction of overall lift requirement enables the use of low-cost launchers for several near-term military satellite missions. ...An integral space power concept provides both the electrical power and propulsion from a common heat source and offers superior performance capabilities over conventional orbital insertion using chemical propulsion systems. This paper describes a hybrid (bimodal) system concept based on a proven, inherently safe solid fuel form for the high temperature reactor core operation and rugged planar thermionic energy converter for long-life steady state electric power production combined with NERVA-based rocket technology for propulsion. ...This paper describes a hybrid (bimodal) system concept based on a proven, inherently safe solid fuel form for the high temperature reactor core operation and rugged planar thermionic energy converter for long-life steady state electric power production combined with NERVA-based rocket technology for propulsion. The integral system is capable of long-life power operation and multiple propulsion operations.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Propulsion System Design of a VTOL Tailsitter UAV

2008-08-19
2008-01-2242
This paper describes the hybrid propulsion system design approach to attain this. The preliminary design and the analysis indicate advantageous performance over other mini-class unmanned air vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Sensor-Fusion System to Locate the Electric Gridlines by UAV for Range Extension in Urban Areas

2022-05-26
2022-26-0007
The finer control needed for placing the extension arm on live electric wire is done using a set of three radio transceivers installed on an electric pole and a double or triple transceiver configuration onboard UAV which locates the live-wire through deductive analysis of sensor data. ...This paper explores the efficacy and efficiency of a system for the effective location of electric gridlines during daytime and night-time by the onboard and offboard transceivers of UAV through vehicle to infrastructure communication. ...The usage of electric gridlines in urban areas helps to extend the range of the UAVs by charging the onboard battery using an extended arm.
Technical Paper

Cross-Ducted Propulsion Systems for Medium-Speed V/STOL Applications

1983-10-03
831493
Multiengine vertical takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft have a unique requirement to at least maintain aircraft trim after losing one engine during vertical landing. The most popular scheme by which this is accomplished involves using cross-shafted fans with variable inlet guide vanes. A significantly different approach is described herein whereby cross-ducted fan bleed air is used to obtain roll control and engine out roll trim. The installation of this cross-ducted system in a twin-engine V/STOL aircraft is described in detail along with different options for obtaining pitch control, pitch trim and yaw control. The optimum engine cycle for each configuration is defined based on mission performance results and vertical landing capabilities. The cross-ducted systems were found to offer significant advantages compared to the cross-shafted systems in terms of aircraft performance as well as design simplicity, versatility, reliability, vulnerability, survivability, and safety.
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