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Technical Paper

Energy Storage for Commercial Hybrid Electric Aircraft

2016-09-20
2016-01-2014
Energy storage options for a hybrid electric commercial single aisle aircraft were investigated. The propulsion system features twin Geared Turbofan™ engines in which each low speed spool is assisted by a 2,500 HP electric motor during takeoff and climb. ...The propulsion system features twin Geared Turbofan™ engines in which each low speed spool is assisted by a 2,500 HP electric motor during takeoff and climb. During cruise, the aircraft is powered solely by the turbine engines which are sized for efficient operation during this mission phase. ...Energy storage in fuels was also considered along with various converters sized to produce a targeted quantity of electric power. The fuel and converters include fuel cells (both proton exchange membrane and solid oxide operating on hydrogen or on jet fuel) and a turbogenerator (jet fuel or LNG).
Journal Article

Designing a Hybrid Electric Powertrain for an Unmanned Aircraft with a Commercial Optimization Software

2017-06-29
2017-01-9000
The design of a hybrid electric powertrain requires a complex optimization procedure because its performance will strongly depend on both the size of the components and the energy management strategy. ...The problem was addressed in the present investigation by linking an in-house simulation code for hybrid electric aircraft with a commercial many-objective optimization software. The design variables include the size of engine and electric motor, the specification of the battery (typology, nominal capacity, bus voltage), the cooling method of the motor and the battery management strategy. ...The design variables include the size of engine and electric motor, the specification of the battery (typology, nominal capacity, bus voltage), the cooling method of the motor and the battery management strategy.
Technical Paper

More Electric Aircraft: "Tube and Wing" Hybrid Electric Distributed Propulsion with Superconducting and Conventional Electric Machines

2013-09-17
2013-01-2306
Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) describes a power train consisting of a turboshaft engine which is used solely to provide electrical power through a generator to electric motors driving multiple propulsive fans which are distributed above, below, or inside a wing. ...The focus of the work was to study how hybrid propulsion could improve efficiency of airport terminal area operations; in other words, what improvements could be provided by TeDP during the first and last 5% of a mission.
Book

Electric Motors for Hybrid and Pure Electric Vehicles 2015-2025: Land, Water, Air

2014-11-01
The information is especially important as hybrid vehicles may have the electric motor near the conventional engine or its exhaust, and this may mean they need to tolerate temperatures never before encountered in pure electric vehicles. ...The information is especially important as hybrid vehicles may have the electric motor near the conventional engine or its exhaust, and this may mean they need to tolerate temperatures never before encountered in pure electric vehicles. Motors for highly price-sensitive markets such as electric bikes, scooters, e-rickshaws and micro EVs avoid the price hikes of neodymium and other rare earths in the magnets. ...The electric vehicle business will approach a massive $500 billion in 2025 with the traction motors segment capturing over $25 billion.
Technical Paper

Mission-based Design Space Exploration for Powertrain Electrification of Series Plugin Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck

2018-04-03
2018-01-1027
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are essential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions. However, when analyzing different segments of the transportation industry, for example, public transportation or different sizes of delivery trucks and how the HEV are used, it is clear that one powertrain may not be optimal in all situations. ...The powertrain of a medium-sized series plugin hybrid electric delivery truck with a range extender is optimized for different driving missions. ...Choosing a hybrid powertrain architecture and proper component sizes for different applications is an important task to find the optimal trade-off between fuel economy, drivability, and vehicle cost.
Technical Paper

Robustness Modelling of Complex Systems - Application to the Initialisation of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1231
The approaches are demonstrated by their application to the system initialisation of the propulsion control system of a hybrid electric vehicle. The hybrid system initialisation process is discussed in terms of the key objectives and the technical implementation, illustrating the level of complexity underlying a simple high level requirement. ...The hybrid system initialisation process is discussed in terms of the key objectives and the technical implementation, illustrating the level of complexity underlying a simple high level requirement. The hybrid system initialisation model structure is presented in the form of a set of interlinked state-charts representing the five electronic control units and two control network systems which are the key system elements.
Technical Paper

Development of Production Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Using System Simulation: Technology Leadership Brief

2012-10-08
2012-01-9008
In an earlier paper, the authors described how Model-Based System Engineering could be utilized to provide a virtual Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation capability, which creates a framework for the development of virtual ECU software by providing a platform upon which embedded control algorithms may be developed, tested, updated, and validated. The development of virtual ECU software is increasingly valuable in automotive control system engineering because vehicle systems are becoming more complex and tightly integrated, which requires that interactions between subsystems be evaluated during the design process. Variational analysis and robustness studies are also important and become more difficult to perform with real hardware as system complexity increases. The methodology described in this paper permits algorithm development to be performed prior to the availability of vehicle and control system hardware by providing what is essentially a virtual integration vehicle.
Technical Paper

270-Vdc/Hybrid 115-Vac Electric Power Generating System Technology Demonstrator

1991-09-01
912051
Sundstrand is investigating 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac electrical power generating and distribution systems technology so as to be well prepared to offer such systems for future aircraft applications. ...This paper describes a single-channel, 120-kW hybrid system and presents some typical performance data. The dc bus supplies a 30-kVA, 400-Hz, 115-Vac inverter; constant power load banks of up to 150 kW; and a resistive load bank of up to 90 kW.
Technical Paper

Robust Control Techniques Enabling Duty Cycle Experiments Utilizing a 6-DOF Crewstation Motion Base, a Full Scale Combat Hybrid Electric Power System, and Long Distance Internet Communications

2006-11-07
2006-01-3077
It is a distributed soldier-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop environment with a 6-DOF motion base for operator realism, a full-scale combat hybrid electric power system, and an operational context provided by OneSAF. The driver/gunner crewstations rest on one of two 6-DOF motion bases at the U.S. ...Army TARDEC Simulation Laboratory (TSL). The hybrid power system is located 2,450 miles away at the TARDEC Power and Energy System Integration Laboratory (P&E SIL).
Journal Article

A Hybrid Economy Bleed, Electric Drive Adaptive Power and Thermal Management System for More Electric Aircraft

2010-11-02
2010-01-1786
This paper presents a hybrid APTMS, which balances the use of economy bleed air and electric drive in a single architecture that automatically adapts to changing aircraft conditions to optimally regulate its function. ...Minimizing energy use on more electric aircraft (MEA) requires examining in detail the important decision of whether and when to use engine bleed air, ram air, electric, hydraulic, or other sources of power. ...Minimizing energy use on more electric aircraft (MEA) requires examining in detail the important decision of whether and when to use engine bleed air, ram air, electric, hydraulic, or other sources of power. Further, due to the large variance in mission segments, it is unlikely that a single energy source is the most efficient over an entire mission.
Technical Paper

270-Vdc/Hybrid 115-Vac Electric Power Generating System Technology Demonstrator Evolution to a Dual-Channel, More Electric Aircraft Technology Development Testbed

1991-09-01
912183
Sundstrand has been investigating 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac electrical power generating systems (EPGS) technology in preparation for meeting the electrical power generating system (EPGS) requirements for future aircraft (1). ...This paper presents the most recent Sundstrand 270-Vdc system transient performance data, and describes the modifications being made to the 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac testbed. These modifications will allow more in-depth study of power generation, control and distribution issues and enable development of MEA subsystem and component technologies.
Standard

Document for Electric Power Management

2002-03-29
CURRENT
ARP5584
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARP) covers the definitions, functions and broad application guidelines of modern aerospace vehicle electric power management systems. As aerospace control systems have become more sophisticated and autonomous, the electric power subsystem no longer is just a generation and distribution bus control system. ...As aerospace control systems have become more sophisticated and autonomous, the electric power subsystem no longer is just a generation and distribution bus control system. New electric power systems include integration of individual load logic control, protection, generation, distribution, and load management. ...New electric power systems include integration of individual load logic control, protection, generation, distribution, and load management.
Journal Article

Electric Drives for Electric Green Taxiing Systems

2016-09-20
2016-01-2013
This paper addresses the implementation of electric taxiing without the use of main engines by using electric propulsion of the landing gears. ...Substantial progress in this area has been achieved by Honeywell Aerospace and Safran in a joint initiative for developing an electric green taxiing system (eTaxi). Considerable analysis, design, fabrication, and testing have already been completed, which culminated in a demonstration at the Paris Air Show (PAS) in 2013. ...The eTaxi system has been installed on an A320 airplane that uses the auxiliary power unit (APU) to generate electric power to provide propulsion to two wheels of the main landing gear. The main advantages of such a system are reduction of fuel consumption and audio noise, reduction of CO2 , carbon and nitrous emissions, reduced engine foreign object damage (FOD) exposure and fast-turn time savings by elimination of the ground tractor for pushback operation.
Standard

Selection, Application, and Inspection of Electric Overcurrent Protective Devices

1998-11-01
CURRENT
ARP1199B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides technical and application information needed by the designers of aircraft electric systems and support equipment for the selection of overcurrent protective devices. It provides definitions to permit comparisons of various electric circuit protective devices. ...It provides definitions to permit comparisons of various electric circuit protective devices. Included also are recommended procedures for periodic visual and mechanical inspection criteria.
Book

Advances in Electric Propulsion

2017-05-18
Additionally, measures such as electric/conventional hybrid configurations will ultimately increase efficiencies and knowledge of electric systems while minimizing industrial costs. ...With those challenges in mind, research and development of more efficient and electric propulsion systems will expand. Fuel-cell technology is but one example that addresses such emission and resource challenges, and others, including negligible acoustic emissions and the potential to leverage current infrastructure models. ...Requirements for greater flight time, stealth characteristics, and thrust-to-power ratios adds urgency to the development of efficient propulsion methods for applications such as UAVs, which looks to technologies such as asymmetrical capacitors to enhance electric propulsion efficiency. This book will take the reader through various technologies that will enable a more-electric aircraft future, as well as design methods and certification requirements of more-electric engines.
Journal Article

Development of Electric and Range-Extended Electric Vehicles Through Collaboration Partnerships

2010-10-19
2010-01-2344
In order to support the development of this technology, FEV has, over the last 18 months, developed more than 20 different electric, or range-extended electric vehicles. All those vehicles are driving successfully on the road today, either as demonstration or fleet vehicles. ...Therefore, the integration of all partners has proven to be key to the rapid development of electric and hybrid vehicle technology. An overview of some of the vehicles which have been developed at FEV is provided. ...In the last few years, almost every automotive OEM has announced the development of some sort of electric vehicles. Many of those have already been shown to the public, either as concept vehicles, or as pre-production demonstration vehicles.
Book

Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft

2018-12-18
Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft was developed to explain what the electric aircraft stands for by offering an objective view of what can be expected from the giant strides in innovative architectures and technologies enabling aircraft electrification. ...Addressing design constraints and timelines foreseen to reach acceptable performance and maturity levels, Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft puts forward a general view of the progress made to date and what to expect in the years to come. ...Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft also offers analyses on how performance enhancements and fuel burn savings may bring more value for money as long as new electric technologies deliver on their promises.
Technical Paper

The All Electric Airplane Revisited

1988-10-01
881407
The NASA and the military services (NADC and AFWAL) have all promoted the precepts of an “all electric airplane” that would eliminate distributed high pressure hydraulics and multiply different power sources in one airplane. ...This paper revisits the use of all electric power in military/commercial aircraft and discusses approaches by which the desired implementation might be achieved. ...The subject and topic of “all electric aircraft” is not new and, in fact, a few U.S. and European aircraft have come very near to justifying that appellation.
Journal Article

Advanced Electric Drives for Aerospace More Electric Architectures

2008-11-11
2008-01-2861
This paper discusses the problem of obtaining electric machines (EM) for advanced electric drives (AED) used in more electric architecture (MEA) applicable to aircraft, spacecraft, and military ground vehicles. ...A methodology for electric machine selection is demonstrated. An example of high-speed, high-performance machine application is shown. ...A system approach is used for overall electric machine selection and optimization. The presented material is a synopsis of the extensive engineering experience accumulated in Honeywell International.
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