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Technical Paper

CARB Evaporative Emissions Test Program

In 1997 and 1998, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) conducted an extensive evaporative emissions test program to assess the feasibility of reducing evaporative emissions standards from the current 2 gram per test total hydrocarbon (THC) standard. Seven vehicles were tested and five modified in order to determine what emissions levels would be feasible. Emissions reductions of approximately 40% resulted from these modifications. The ARB also conducted studies of non-fuel background emissions and of emissions test variability.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Engine Calibration Techniques to Reduce Off-Cycle Emissions

Engine calibrations are inexpensive methods for reducing exhaust emissions since only software modifications are required. The California Air Resources Board staff conducted a test program to investigate the effectiveness of engine calibration techniques to reduce the newly regulated aggressive driving exhaust emissions or “off-cycle” emissions. Consisting of stoichiometric and rich “bias” calibration, these engine calibration techniques were applied to fourteen late-model vehicles. The engine calibration techniques reduced the off-cycle emissions substantially on most vehicles. To comply with the proposed off-cycle standards for California low-emission vehicles and ultra-low-emission vehicles, these techniques will be a cost-effective method to reduce off-cycle emissions.