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Journal Article

Glass Debris in Rollover Accidents

Vehicles involved in rollover accidents almost always leave a debris trail. This debris trail is useful for the accident reconstructionist; it assists with identifying the vehicle path during the rollover and the location and orientation of the vehicle at various vehicle to ground contacts. ...This is possible by comparing glass obtained from the accident site with glass samples still attached to the accident vehicle. The limit of this analysis is controlled by the manufacturing tolerance of the vehicle glass and the specified pane thickness.
Technical Paper

Pulse Shape and Duration in Frontal Crashes

The significant physical effects related to the crash pulse are often essential in reconstruction analyses wherein the estimation of occupant interior “second collision” or airbag sensing issues are at issue. ...The relation constitutes a closed-form model called BSAN, which represents the entire crash pulse by the specification of five readily available reconstruction parameters: closing velocity, approach time, maximum crush, coefficient of restitution, and total contact time. ...Of these, all but the time estimates are generally part of a normal crash reconstruction process. Relationships between the pulse shape, the “characteristic length” (or the “centroid time”) for a pulse representing a typical structure and test condition are explored as a means for improving time parameter estimates.
Technical Paper

Load Path Considerations for Side Crash Compatibility

Heavier, larger pickups and SUVs are bound to encounter lighter, smaller passenger vehicles in many future accidents. As the fleet has evolved to include more and more SUVs, their frontal structures are often indistinguishable from pickup fronts.
Technical Paper

Derivation of Vehicle-to-Vehicle Frontal Crash Pulse Estimates from Barrier Crash Data

The BSAN crash pulse model has been shown to provide useful information for restraint sensing evaluation and for structural force-displacement studies in flat fixed rigid barrier (FFRB) crashes. This paper demonstrates a procedure by which the model may be extended for use with central and offset vehicle to vehicle (VTV) crashes through appropriate combinations of vehicle parameters.
Technical Paper

Issues in Seatbelt Inertial Release

Initial claims that seatbelt buckles might inertially unlatch in an automobile collision were based upon the observation that sharply striking the backside of a side-release buckle with some object could cause the buckle to unlatch. More recently, similar examinations have formed the basis of the hypothesis that end-release buckles might be susceptible to inertial release under certain crash conditions. This paper discusses some examples of how test data have been misinterpreted to erroneously support these hypotheses.
Technical Paper

Occupant Injury in Rollover Crashes: A Reexamination of Malibu II

The original Malibu II study, conducted by Bahling et al, found that neck compression loading in rollover crashes is caused by the occupant moving toward the ground and therefore, roof crush was not causally related to the loading. Some have disputed this finding claiming that the occupant does not “dive toward the roof,” but rather, the roof “moves in” toward the occupant, and that roof deformation is the primary cause of cervical spine injuries in rollover crashes. The original study included a detailed analysis of film and force transducer data for 10 Potentially Injurious Impacts (PII's). This paper presents an independent analysis of these 10 PII's and one additional PII. This analysis uses the film and transducer data to evaluate the timing of roof deformation and neck loading, the magnitude of roof deformation at the time of peak neck load, and the motion of the vehicle and occupants in the inertial reference system.