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Journal Article

Design of Seat Mounted ECG Sensor System for Vehicle Application

The causes of deaths in traffic accidents are predominantly human factors such as careless or "heedlessness" driving; recently, accidents that are believed to be due to deteriorated physical conditions, such as heart attacks, have been reported. ...The causes of deaths in traffic accidents are predominantly human factors such as careless or "heedlessness" driving; recently, accidents that are believed to be due to deteriorated physical conditions, such as heart attacks, have been reported. ...Non-contact electrocardiography (ECG) monitor for continuous ECG detection while driving is needed to reduce a number of fatal accident by human error like this. Recently there are a lot of papers to detect cardiac electricity using capacitance coupling between human body and electrode.
Technical Paper

Display System for Vehicle to Pedestrian Communication

It is assumed that traffic accidents will be caused by the overconfidence to the autonomous driving system and the lack of communication between the vehicle and the pedestrian. ...We will investigate more effective way of display to prevent traffic accidents.
Technical Paper

A Sense of Distance and Augmented Reality for Stereoscopic Vision

Head-up displays (HUDs) give visual information to drivers in an easy to understand manner and prevent traffic accidents. Augmented reality head-up displays (AR-HUDs) display the driving information overlaid on the actual scenery.
Technical Paper

Real Driving Emission Efficiency Potential of SDPF Systems without an Ammonia Slip Catalyst

In order to comply with emission regulation, reach their profitability targets and minimise the in-use cost of their vehicles, OEMs are seeking solutions to optimise their aftertreatment systems. For Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system engineers, one of the most important challenges is to reduce the system's cost, while keeping its high level of NOx emission reduction performance. Ways to achieve this cost reduction include 1. using an engine out NOx estimation model instead of a NOx sensor upstream of the SDPF (DPF coated with SCR) catalyst and 2. eliminating the Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC) downstream of the SDPF catalyst. Achieving these challenging targets requires actions on the complete SCR system, from the optimisation of mixing and uniformity in the SDPF catalyst to the development of robust controls. To face these challenges, a novel exhaust reverse flow concept with a blade mixer was developed.
Technical Paper

Development of Automatic Braking System to Help Reduce Rear Impacts

A Rear Cross Traffic Auto Brake (RCTAB) system has been developed that uses radar sensors to detect vehicles approaching from the right or left at the rear of the driver’s vehicle, and then performs braking control if the system judges that a collision may occur. This system predicts the intersecting course of approaching vehicles and uses the calculated time-to-collision (TTC) to control the timing of automatic braking with the aim of helping prevent unnecessary operation while ensuring system performance.
Technical Paper

Research on the Threshold of Scare or Secure by Assessing Braking in Advanced Driver Assistance System

Establishing drivers’ trust in the automated driving system is critical to the success of automated vehicle. The focus of this paper is how to make drivers drive automated vehicles with confidence during braking events. In this study, 10 participants drove a test vehicle and experienced 24 different deceleration settings each. Prior to each drive, we indicated to each participant the expected brake starting and stopping position. During each drive, participants would first maintain a set speed, and then stop the vehicle when they see a signal to apply the brakes. After each drive, we asked the participants’ perceived safety about the deceleration setting he/she just experienced. The results revealed that ‘jerk’ have significant influence on drivers’ perceived safety.
Technical Paper

A Fixed-quantity Indicator to Replace Display Annoyance in an Indirect Field of Vision

Driving is an action that depends strongly on visual information. For displays in the cockpit, a combination of “ease of viewing” to inform the driver of danger early and “annoyance reduction” to avoid drops in the driver’s perception is needed. In this study, we tried to capture “ease of viewing” and “annoyance” in one fixed-quantity indicator. We took up a Camera Monitor System (CMS) as the subject and analyzed the effect that annoyance with the display used in CMSs has on driving behavior. Based on our analysis, we hypothesize that evaluating carelessness in viewing behavior is related evaluating to annoyance. Next, we chose a Detection Response Task (DRT) technique as a method to evaluate driving behavior influenced by this annoyance.
Journal Article

Shift-by-Wire System for Lexus RWD Vehicles

Shift selection devices are desired to be flexible for design and layout, in order to realize the next generation of cockpits for Lexus vehicles. In addition, refined shift operation feelings are also required to be suitable for Lexus vehicles. To meet these demands, the Lexus LC500 has been equipped with a shift-by-wire system, which replaces the mechanical linkage between the shift selector and transmission with electrical signals and an actuator. This shift-by-wire system will be installed in a wide variety of Lexus powertrain lineup, including conventional gas vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Therefore, the next generation shift-by-wire system for Lexus has been developed with high reliability and applicability. This technology will be essential when autonomous driving and autonomous parking systems are realized in the near future.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Expert Driver’s Braking Behavior and Its Application to an Automatic Braking System

Deceleration patterns of an expert driver will be formulated using the perceptual risk index for approach and proximity of a preceding vehicle as an example of comfortable braking pattern. It will be shown that the formulated braking pattern can generate smooth deceleration profile uniformly for many conditions of approaching conditions. In addition, brake initiation timing of expert driver will be successfully formulated using the alternative index. Finally, an automatic braking system will be proposed based on the formulated brake initiation model and the velocity profile. Twenty five expert drivers experienced the automatic braking installed in an experimental car. It will be shown that the proposed system can generate smooth profile and realize secure brake patterns based on subjective evaluation.