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Technical Paper

The Vision of a Comprehensive Safety Concept

This paper elaborates on the issue that the time available before a potential accident occurs can be used to improve the safety of occupants and other involved road users. Accident analysis confirms that this is feasible for about two-thirds of all accidents. The recognition of an imminent collision bears a noteworthy potential for accident prevention, reduction of accident severity and injury severity. ...The recognition of an imminent collision bears a noteworthy potential for accident prevention, reduction of accident severity and injury severity. The former boundary between active and passive safety thus fades continually. ...This paper elaborates on the issue that the time available before a potential accident occurs can be used to improve the safety of occupants and other involved road users. Accident analysis confirms that this is feasible for about two-thirds of all accidents.
Technical Paper

Validation of Eulerian Spray Concept coupled with CFD Combustion Analysis

The main objective of engine 3D CFD simulation is nowadays the support for combustion design development. New combustion concepts (e.g. Low Temperature Combustion, HCCI, multiple injection strategies …) could be analyzed and predicted through detailed thermodynamical computation. To achieve this aim many simulation tools are needed: each of them has to be capable to reproduce the sensitivities of combustion design parameters through physically based models. The adopted approach consists of the coupling of different models for 3D-nozzle flow, orifice-resolved spray formation in Eulerian coordinates and combustion. The advantages of the method will be proofed on an operative DI-diesel truck engine case, run with different nozzle geometries.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Optimization of In-Cylinder Tumble Motion for the New Chrysler Hemi

The current is an investigation of the effects of charge motion, namely tumble, on the burn characteristics of the new Chrysler Hemi SI engine. In order to reduce prototyping, several combustion system designs were evaluated; some of which were eliminated prior to design inception solely based on CFD simulations. The effects of piston top and number of spark plugs were studied throughout the conceptual stage with the AVL-FIRE CFD code. It has been concluded that large-scale, persistent and coherent tumbling flow structures are essential to charge motion augmentation at ignition only if such structures are decimated right before ignition. Piston top had a detrimental effect on tumbling charge motion as the piston approaches the TDC. When compared to single spark plug operation, dual spark plug reflected considerable improvement on burn characteristics and engine performance as a consequence. The CFD simulations demonstrated good correlation with early dynamometer data.
Technical Paper

Evolution-Strategy Based, Fully Automatic, Numerical Optimization of Gas-Exchange Systems for IC Engines

Today, a number of simulation codes are available for pre-designing gas exchange systems of IC engines with good accuracy (e.g. PROMO, WAVE, GT-Power). However, optimizing such systems still requires numerous time consuming and inefficient trial and error runs. Also, accounting for constraints as size, volume, peak combustion pressure etc. multiplies the necessary efforts additionally. Hence there is a strong need for efficient procedures for finding optimum designs automatically and reliably. To automatically find the global optimum design parameters under a given set of real constraints of a practical case, a multi-membered evolution-strategy based optimization code was developed. The code which efficiently finds the true optimum dimensions of gas exchange systems (duct lengths, duct diameters, volumes) of an IC engine. The code can be readily generalized, and adapted to arbitrary optimization problems.
Technical Paper

3D-Simulation of DI-Diesel Combustion Applying a Progress Variable Approach Accounting for Complex Chemistry

A progress variable approach for the 3D-CFD simulation of DI-Diesel combustion is introduced. Considering the Diesel-typical combustion phases of auto-ignition, premixed and diffusion combustion, for each phase, a limited number of characteristic progress variables is defined. By spatial-temporal balancing of these progress variables, the combustion process is described. Embarking on this concept, it is possible to simulate the reaction processes with detailed chemistry schemes. The combustion model is coupled with a mesh-independent Eulerian-spray model in combination with orifice resolving meshes. The comparison between experiment and simulation for various Diesel engines shows good agreement for pressure traces, heat releases and flame structures.
Technical Paper

Active Safety of Commercial Vehicles - The European Status

The increase of active safety will demand more and more electronic intelligence, if a drastic optimization of conventional systems is not possible any more. Starting from today's mechatronic systems, the trend leads via tomorrow's smart electronic systems to the future electronic networking of all intelligent vehicle systems. The paper describes the present status of these systems in Europe and the possibilities of increasing the active safety by using electronic intelligence.
Technical Paper

Study of a Sintered Metal Diesel Particulate Trap

This paper describes work supporting the development of a new Diesel particulate trap system for heavy duty vehicles based on porous sintered metal materials that exhibit interesting characteristics with respect to ash tolerance. Experimental data characterizing the material (permeability, soot and ash deposit properties) are obtained in a dedicated experimental setup in the side-stream of a modern Diesel engine as well as in an accelerated ash loading rig. System level simulations coupling the new media characteristics to 3-D CFD software for the optimization of complete filter systems are then performed and comparative assessment results of example designs are given.
Technical Paper

FlexRay - The Communication System for Advanced Automotive Control Systems

BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Motorola and Philips present their joint development activity related to the FlexRay communication system that is intended for distributed applications in vehicles. The designated applications for powertrain and chassis control place requirements in terms of availability, reliability and data bandwidth that cannot be met by any product currently available on the market under the testing conditions encountered in an automobile. A short look back on events so far is followed by a description of the protocol and its first implementation as an integrated circuit, as well as its incorporation into a complete tool environment.
Technical Paper

Powernet Simulation as a Tool for the Development of a Highly Reliable Energy Supply for Safety Relevant Control Systems in X-By-Wire Vessels in the EU SPARC Project

The EU SPARC Project (Secure Propelled Vehicle with Advanced Redundant Control) has developed a new system architecture that enables effective application of driver assisted systems in an X-by-wire powertrain. A major challenge in the conception of such a system is development of a reliable electrical energy supply. A simulation is the most important tool for enabling the fundamental aspects to work, as for example, a dimensioning of the powernet. This article explains our approach in this SPARC simulation. We provide suggestions through examples of how to find simulation solutions for powernet dimensioning, as well as for the conception and validation of energy management strategies.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Engineering as a Tool for Design for Environment

Mercedes-Benz at DaimlerChrysler has been developing and applying Life-Cycle-Engineering (LCE) and Life-Cycle-Assessment (LCA) since almost 10 years. Extensive experience and know-how has been gained by two complete car LCAs and more than 100 LCAs for parts. According to our experience LCA/LCE is most effectively and efficiently used to support the development of new products. One of DaimlerChrysler's Environmental Guidelines includes a statement, that our approach to environmentally acceptable design covers the entire product spectrum of the DaimlerChrysler Group, taking into account the product life cycle from design through disposal or recycling. The organisation of environmental management at DaimlerChrysler has a distinct structure of tasks: the central Environmental Protection Division coordinates all organisation/ plant related aspects, while all product related aspects are the responsibility of the divisonal business units.
Technical Paper

Heavy Truck Frontal Crash Protection System Development

Heavy trucks are produced with a great variety of vehicle configurations, operate over a wide range of gross vehicle weight and sometimes function in extreme duty environments. Frontal crashes of heavy trucks can pose a threat to truck occupants when the vehicle strikes another large object such as bridge works, large natural features or another heavy-duty vehicle. Investigations of heavy truck frontal crashes indicate that the factors listed above all affect the outcome for the driver and the resulting damage to the truck Recently, a new chassis was introduced for on-highway heavy truck models that feature frontal airbag occupant protection. This introduction presented an opportunity to incorporate the knowledge gained from crash investigation into the process for developing the crash sensor's parameter settings.