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Technical Paper

Challenges in Simulation and Sensor Development for Occupant Protection in Rollover Accidents

2000-11-01
2000-01-C038
In this paper, we will touch upon the concept of the "safety state diagram,' which encompasses a host of variables or "zones' such as; vehicle motion, occupant-state and accident to post accident states. Highlights include concepts such as pre-crash sensing, anticipatory crash sensing, X-by-wire, advanced safety interiors, and smart safety systems. ...., were developed for to help save lives and minimize injuries in accidents. Over the years, preventive measures such as improving visibility, headlights, windshield wipers, tire traction etc., were deployed to help reduce the probability of getting into an accident. ...., were deployed to help reduce the probability of getting into an accident. With tremendous new research and improvements in electronics, we are at the stage of helping to actively avoid accidents in certain situations as well as providing increased protection to vehicle occupants and pedestrians.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Approach to Automotive Safety Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-0346
Later, preventive measures such as improving visibility, headlights, windshield wipers, tire traction, etc. were deployed to reduce the probability of getting into an accident. Now we are at the stage of actively avoiding accidents as well as providing maximum protection to the vehicle occupants and even pedestrians. ...Initially, individual passive devices and features such as seatbelts, airbags, knee bolsters, crush zones, etc. were developed for saving lives and minimizing injuries when an accident occurs. Later, preventive measures such as improving visibility, headlights, windshield wipers, tire traction, etc. were deployed to reduce the probability of getting into an accident.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Hazard Analysis Technique for Safety-Critical Automotive Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0674
Hazard analysis plays an important role in the development of safety-critical systems. Hazard analysis techniques have been used in the development of conventional automotive systems. However, as future automotive systems become more sophisticated in functionality, design, and applied technology, the need for a more comprehensive hazard analysis approach has arisen. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive hazard analysis approach for system safety programs. This comprehensive approach involves applying a number of hazard analysis techniques and then integrating their results. This comprehensive approach attempts to overcome the narrower scope of individual techniques while obtaining the benefits of all of them.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic Strategies for Advanced Automotive Systems

2002-10-21
2002-21-0024
In recent years, the desire for improved vehicle performance, reliability and safety have increased the electrical content and its complexity in vehicles. Advanced automotive systems integrate sensors, controllers, actuators and communication networks. To maintain safety and reliability, a comprehensive system of diagnostics and physical and analytic redundancy are used. In some cases, diagnostic strategies based on analytical redundancy can provide detection, as well as fault-tolerance, and may provide benefits in cost, packaging, flexibility and reusability. This paper discusses a range of diagnostic methods and their applicability to advanced automotive systems such as X-by-Wire. It will also show the reduction to practice of an advanced analytical technique for an automotive application.
Technical Paper

Development of a Controlled Braking Strategy For Vehicle Adaptive Cruise Control

2000-03-06
2000-01-0109
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) technology is presently on the horizon as a convenience function intended to reduce driver workload. This paper presents an implementation of a brake algorithm, which extends the production cruise control feature. A brief overview of the system architecture and subsystem interfaces to the forward-obstacle detection system, throttle and engine management controls are described. Considerations of moding ACC with ABS and Traction Control are presented at the vehicle level. This development activity is presented in two major phases. Both phases of this development project utilize CAN controllers and transceivers to implement requirements for limited access highway driving. The initial phase of development requires the brake control to follow a deceleration command and operate “open-loop” to the vehicle controller. Vehicle test data capturing smooth stops on high coefficient surfaces is presented as insight to the braking performance of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Consumers, Electronics, and the Link to Hybrid Vehicles and the Environment

2000-11-01
2000-01-C045
The interdependence of consumer features, new electronic and electrical architectures and hybrid propulsion systems are examined. There are two major forces driving future vehicle electronic and electrical systems, one is consumer demand for comfort and safety, and two is the demand for reduced fuel consumption and emissions. These forces are linked by the use of electronics to control vehicle energy generation and usage while providing managed solutions to these demands. Automobile consumer features are discussed and the case is made that these features will require more electric power to be installed on the vehicle. The presence of this increased electric power will then enable the hybrid vehicle functions that will benefit fuel economy and emissions performance.
Technical Paper

Reliability of Resonant Micromachined Sensors and Actuators

2001-03-05
2001-01-0618
There are an increasing number of applications for resonant micromachines. Accelerometers, angular rate sensors, voltage controlled oscillators, pressure and chemical sensors have been demonstrated using this technology. Several of these devices are employed in vehicles. Vibrating devices have been made from silicon, quartz, GaAs, nickel and aluminum. Resonant microsystems are in constant motion and so present new challenges in the area of reliability for vehicular applications. The impact of temperature extremes, cyclic fatigue, stiction, thermal and mechanical shock on resonant device performance is covered.
Technical Paper

Smart Sensors for Future Robust Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C055
"Smart'' sensor concepts must be considered as the demands of advanced automotive systems increase. These concepts are strongly influenced by the architectural and dependability aspects of future systems. Key features of smart sensors are: communication (two way) with a digital data bus, self- calibration, error source compensation, self-diagnostics, and programmability for "plug and play.'' This paper contains a discussion of the basic future sensor requirements, and it assesses four major sensor technologies with respect to their suitability to meet these requirements. For each technology, the merits and demerits will be reviewed and an example sensing application will be given in order to demonstrate how the technology can be adapted to meet the future requirements.
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