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Technical Paper

Component and System Life Distribution Prediction Using Weibull and Monte Carlo Analysis with Reliability Demonstration Implications for an Electronic Diesel Fuel Injector

2003-03-03
2003-01-1363
This paper presents a methodology to predict component and system reliability and durability. The methodology is illustrated with an electronic diesel fuel injector case study that integrates customer usage data, component failure distribution, system failure criteria, manufacturing variation, and variation in customer severity. Extension to the vehicle system level enables correlation between component and system requirements. Further, this analysis provides the basis to establish a knowledge-based test option for a success test validation program to demonstrate reliability.
Technical Paper

Interior Sensing for Automotive Occupant Safety

2002-10-21
2002-21-0031
Interest in advanced safety systems for occupant protection and accident avoidance, is focused on making further reductions in road fatalities and injuries. Interior occupant sensing systems for advanced restraint systems, trapped occupant sensing, and driver monitoring are today under intense development as part of the industry's safety vision.
Technical Paper

Field Data Analysis of Rear Occupant Injuries Part I: Adults and Teenagers

2003-03-03
2003-01-0153
The objectives of this study on adult and teenager, rear-seated occupants (≥13 years old) are to: 1) review accident data, 2) identify the distribution of rear occupants, and 3) analyze injury risks in various crash modes, including rollovers, frontal, side and rear impacts. ...Results indicate that there is <25% probability of having a rear occupant of any age for every driver involved in any of the databases, and the probability is increasing with accident year. With respect to crash type, the risk for rear occupants to be killed was highest in side and rear impacts and in rollovers, while the rate for serious injury (MAIS 3+) was highest in rollovers and side impacts.
Technical Paper

Survey of Front Passenger Posture Usage in Passenger Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0845
In 2002, NHTSA statistics indicate air bag deployments saved an estimated 1,500 lives; however, reports of occupants having serious or fatal injuries during air bag deployment appear low relative to the number of accidents with air bag deployments. To avoid air bag induced injuries, a variety of occupant sensing technologies are being developed.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Testing of a Suite of Field Relevant Rollovers

2004-03-08
2004-01-0335
Automotive rollover is a complex mechanical phenomenon. In order to understand the mechanism of rollover and develop any potential countermeasures for occupant protection, efficient and repeatable laboratory tests are necessary. However, these tests are not well understood and are still an active area of research interest. It is not always easy or intuitive to estimate the necessary initial and boundary conditions for such tests to assure repeatability. This task can be even more challenging when rollover is a second or third event (e.g. frontal impact followed by a rollover). In addition, often vehicle and occupant kinematics need to be estimated a-priori, first for the safe operation of the crew and equipment safety, and second for capturing and recording the event. It is important to achieve the required vehicle kinematics in an efficient manner and thus reduce repetitive tests. Mathematical modeling of the phenomenon can greatly assist in understanding such kinematics.
Technical Paper

Case Study of Vehicle Maneuvers Leading to Rollovers: Need for a Vehicle Test Simulating Off-Road Excursions, Recovery and Handling

2003-03-03
2003-01-0169
Rollovers are an important vehicle safety issue. Various technologies have been developed to help prevent rollovers from occurring, but the evaluation of rollover resistance typically involves vehicle-handling tests that are conducted on flat road surfaces with a uniform or split coefficient of friction. The purpose of this study is to determine the precipitating events leading to rollovers by analyzing real-world rollover crashes. This is a first step in identifying and developing vehicle tests that are representative of the principal driving scenarios leading to rollovers. The sequence of events leading to rollovers was determined from 63 in-depth investigated cases in the NASS-CDS database from 1995-1999. The sequence was evaluated by vehicle maneuvers, vehicle stability, surface type, road and shoulder transition condition, posted and estimated speeds, vehicle type and driver injury severity.
Technical Paper

Rollover Crash Sensing and Safety Overview

2004-03-08
2004-01-0342
This paper provides an overview of rollover crash safety, including field crash statistics, pre- and rollover dynamics, test procedures and dummy responses as well as a bibliography of pertinent literature. Based on the 2001 Traffic Safety Facts published by NHTSA, rollovers account for 10.5% of the first harmful events in fatal crashes; but, 19.5% of vehicles in fatal crashes had a rollover in the impact sequence. Based on an analysis of the 1993-2001 NASS for non-ejected occupants, 10.5% of occupants are exposed to rollovers, but these occupants experience a high proportion of AIS 3-6 injury (16.1% for belted and 23.9% for unbelted occupants). The head and thorax are the most seriously injured body regions in rollovers. This paper also describes a research program aimed at defining rollover sensing requirements to activate belt pretensioners, roof-rail airbags and convertible pop-up rollbars.
Technical Paper

A Strategy to Partition Crash Data to Define Active-Safety Sensors and Product Solutions

2008-10-20
2008-21-0032
Both Crash-Avoidance and Pre-Crash active safety technologies are being developed to help reduce the number of crashes and minimize the severity of crashes. The root basis in the development of new and improved active safety technologies always begins with gaining further knowledge about crash kinds and causes. The dynamics of crashes are quite complex. The evolving precursor crash situation initiated in the Crash-Avoidance time-period will vary from the imminent crash situation in the Pre-Crash time-period. As such, in order to develop the appropriate requirements for both crash-avoidance and pre-crash technologies, they must be analyzed from their respective crash data. A data-driven methodology process has been developed which partitions the field data with a perspective to crash-avoidance and pre-crash.
Technical Paper

DOE Guidelines on Hydrogen Safety

2005-04-11
2005-01-0010
Hydrogen is the most plentiful gas in the universe. However hydrogen never occurs naturally, always combines with other elements such as oxygen and carbon [1]. Hydrogen is the ultimate clean energy carrier once it is separated from other elements [11]. Moreover hydrogen can easily be generated from renewable energy sources. Hydrogen is also nonpolluting, and forms water as a harmless byproduct during the oxidation process. Safe practices in the production, storage, distribution, and use of hydrogen are essential components of a hydrogen economy [2]. A catastrophic failure in any hydrogen project could irreparably damage the entire transition strategy. The safety program element delineates the steps that the hydrogen, fuel cells & infrastructure technologies program shall ensure that all projects are performed in a safe manner.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Database for Infrastructureless Routing

2008-04-14
2008-01-1254
Traffic engineers use time-of-day travel time databases to characterize normal travel times on roads. This information is used by traffic management centers together with information from sensors in the highway to identify problems and to make alternate route recommendations. In this paper, the travel time database concept is extended to a vehicle-to-vehicle communications network for traffic and safety information, wherein the travel time database is generated and stored by vehicles in the network, and used by the vehicles to identify abnormal traffic conditions. This infrastructure-free approach is attractive due to the potential to eliminate highway sensor and sensor maintenance costs, which are major factors that limit the growth of traffic information beyond major roadways in urban regions. Initial work indicates that database storage requirements in the vehicle should be manageable.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Engine Dynamics Model Based In-Cylinder Pressure Estimation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0896
The information provided by the in-cylinder pressure signal is of great importance for modern engine management systems. The obtained information is implemented to improve the control and diagnostics of the combustion process in order to meet the stringent emission regulations and to improve vehicle reliability and drivability. The work presented in this paper covers the experimental study and proposes a comprehensive and practical solution for the estimation of the in-cylinder pressure from the crankshaft speed fluctuation. Also, the paper emphasizes the feasibility and practicality aspects of the estimation techniques, for the real-time online application. In this study an engine dynamics model based estimation method is proposed. A discrete-time transformed form of a rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed based on the kinetic energy theorem, as the basis expression for total torque estimation.
Journal Article

Diagnostics based on the Statistical Correlation of Sensors

2008-04-14
2008-01-0129
The paper describes a new strategy for real-time sensor diagnostics that is based on the statistical correlation of various sensor signal pairs. During normal fault-free operation there is a certain correlation between the sensor signals which is lost in the event of a fault. The proposed algorithm quantifies the correlation between sensor signal pairs using real-time scalar metrics based on the Mahalanobis-distance concept. During normal operation all metrics follow a similar pattern, however in the event of a fault; metrics involving the faulty sensor would increase in proportion to the magnitude of the fault. Thus, by monitoring this pattern and using a suitable fault-signature table it is possible to isolate the faulty sensor in real-time. Preliminary simulation results suggest that the strategy can mitigate the false-alarms experienced by most model-based diagnostic algorithms due to an intrinsic ability to distinguish nonlinear vehicle behavior from actual sensor faults.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach for Real-Time Prognosis of Safety-Critical Vehicle Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1497
The paper describes the development of a vehicle stability indicator based on the correlation between various current vehicle chassis sensors such as hand wheel angle, yaw rate and lateral acceleration. In general, there is a correlation between various pairs of sensor signals when the vehicle operation is linear and stable and a lack of correlation when the vehicle is becoming unstable or operating in a nonlinear region. The paper outlines one potential embodiment of the technology that makes use of the Mahalanobis distance metric to assess the degree of correlation among the sensor signals. With this approach a single scalar metric provides an accurate indication of vehicle stability.
Technical Paper

Overview of Remote Diagnosis and Maintenance for Automotive Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1428
Advances in wireless communications, model-based diagnostics, human-machine interfaces, electronics and embedded system technologies have created the foundation for a dramatic shift in the way the vehicles are diagnosed and maintained. These advances will enable vehicle diagnosis and maintenance to be performed remotely while the vehicle is being driven. There also has been recent strong consumer interest in Remote Diagnosis and Maintenance (RD&M). As a consequence, RD&M is drawing increased attention in the automotive industry. This paper provides the current status of vehicle remote diagnosis and maintenance, analyses the potential features of RD&M and their significance, and discusses how next generation automotive products could benefit from research and development in this area.
Technical Paper

Field Data Analysis of Rear Occupant Injuries Part II: Children, Toddlers and Infants

2003-03-03
2003-01-0154
Child safety continues to be an important issue in automotive safety for many reasons, including reported cases of serious injury from airbag deployments. As a result of extensive public education campaigns, most children are now placed in rear seats of vehicles. Accordingly, a more precise understanding of rear-seat occupant protection is developing as the second and third rows have become the primary seating area for children in SUVs, vans and passenger cars. The objective of this study was to review field crash and injury data from rear seats, identify the distribution of children and infants in rear seats, and analyze injury risks in various crash modes. The database used was the 1991-1999 NASS-CDS. When looking at crash configurations for 1st and 2nd row children, rollover crashes involved the highest incidence of MAIS 3+ injury, followed by frontal and side impacts. Lap-shoulder belt usage was similar for 1st and 2nd row children.
Technical Paper

Identifying and Understanding Relevant System Safety Standards for use in the Automotive Industry

2003-03-03
2003-01-1293
A new generation of software-controlled vehicle systems promises to help enhance vehicle safety, performance and comfort. As these new, often complex systems are added, system safety programs are followed to help eliminate potential hazards. An important part of planning for a safety program is to understand applicable standards. This paper identifies, reviews, categorizes, and summarizes the importance of several applicable standards for incorporation in a system safety program.
Technical Paper

Influence of Chassis Characteristics on Sustained Roll, Heave and Yaw Oscillations in Dynamic Rollover Testing

2005-04-11
2005-01-0398
In dynamic rollover tests many vehicles experience sustained body roll oscillations during a portion of road edge recovery maneuver, in which constant steering angle is maintained. In this paper, qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is given and it is analyzed using simplified models. It is found that the primary root cause of these oscillations is coupling occurring between the vehicle roll, heave and subsequently yaw modes resulting from suspension jacking forces. These forces cause vertical (heave) motions of vehicle body, which in turn affect tire normal and subsequently lateral forces, influencing yaw response of vehicle. As a result, sustained roll, heave and yaw oscillations occur during essentially a steady-state portion of maneuver. Analysis and simulations are used to assess the influence of several chassis characteristics on the self-excited oscillations. The results provide important insights, which may influence suspension design.
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