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Technical Paper

Variability in Circumstances Underlying Pedal Errors: An Investigation Using the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey

These data, however, are limited for various reasons, including the absence of an in-depth investigation of causal factors contributing to the accident. To further examine the rate of UA incidents related to pedal error, we utilized the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS), a nationally representative sample of 5,471 crashes that occurred between 2005 and 2007. ...We then investigated accident characteristics across these specific cases, including demographics of the drivers, vehicle characteristics, and pre-crash critical events.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Rear Impact Collision Delta-V and Restraint Status on Injury Outcome

The most recent National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data available (1997 to 2011) were analyzed to identify accidents involving passenger vehicles that have experienced an impact with a principal direction of force (PDOF) between 5:00 and 7:00, indicating a rear impact collision.
Journal Article

An Evaluation of the BioRID II and Hybrid III During Low- and Moderate-Speed Rear Impact

Debate surrounds the utility of the Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy (BioRID) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) for providing meaningful biomechanical metrics during rear impact and the appropriate criteria for interpreting the ATD response. In the current study, we performed a comparison of the kinematic and kinetic responses of the BioRID II and Hybrid III ATDs over a range of low- and moderate-speed rear impact conditions. A BioRID II and a midsize male Hybrid III were tested side-by-side in a series of rear impact sled tests. To evaluate occupant response in rear impact, the ATDs were positioned into front row standard production bucket seats, restrained by 3-point safety belts, and subjected to rear impacts with delta-Vs (ΔVs) of 2.2, 3.6, 5.4, and 6.7 m/s (5, 8, 12, and 15 mph).
Technical Paper

Lumbar Loads in Low to Moderate Speed Rear Impacts

Although most of the research on vehicular rear impacts has focused on the neck, there is increasing current concern about the lumbar spine. Spinal bending superimposed with sudden spinal compression has been suggested as a mechanism of creating acute herniations on the rare occasion in which low back pain associated with an intervertebral disc herniation was reported. During automotive rear-impacts, the vehicle accelerations are directed anteriorly, and the seat backs deflect posteriorly. In vehicle seats equipped with floor-mounted seatbelt restraints, the pelvis is restrained by the seatback and seatbelt, while the torso ramps upward and rearward on the seatback during the rearward motion, producing tension in the lumbar spine. However, in an all-belts-to-seat arrangement, the lumbar spines may experience overall compressive and bending loads.