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Technical Paper

Daily Vehicle Inspection and Vehicle Maintenance Issues in Accident Reconstruction

2007-04-16
2007-01-0722
Problems with commercial motor vehicle components such as service brakes, steering controls, lighting devices, reflectors, tires, coupling devices, and other equipment can lead to accidents. Following a collision, accident reconstructionists may be called upon to determine whether these conditions were present before the crash and whether they were a causative factor. ...A discussion is included as to how such findings may be integrated into a reconstruction and cause analysis. Suggestions are offered to promote safer motor carrier practices relevant to vehicle inspections and maintenance issues.
Technical Paper

Using Event Data Recorders in Collision Reconstruction

2002-03-04
2002-01-0535
Examples will be provided of additional, less traditional, uses involving the correlation of data recorded by EDR's during collision events with the results of reconstructions based on accident scene and vehicle crush data. Topics will include Delta-V, pre-crash vehicle motions and operation, driver perception/reaction times, driver actions, and vehicle acceleration/deceleration. ...Analysis of the pre-impact motions of vehicles with antilock brakes, impacts involving vehicles with prior damage, and chain-reaction accidents will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Engineering Models and Animations in Vehicular Accident Studies

1988-02-01
880719
Scale accident scene models combined with aerial photography to enhance realism has been extensively utilized in evaluation, analysis and presentation of vehicular accident reconstructions to non-technical audiences. Slide and video accident animations have been produced directly from aerial photograph enhanced models and have been used successfully in courtroom presentations since the 1970's. ...Vehicle accident analysis relies heavily on mathematics and the principles of conservation of energy and momentum and Newton's laws of motion. ...The analytical procedure is interactive using a combination of model analysis and computer-aided engineering analysis to determine linear and angular velocities and accelerations. Scale accident scene models combined with aerial photography to enhance realism has been extensively utilized in evaluation, analysis and presentation of vehicular accident reconstructions to non-technical audiences.
Technical Paper

New Dimensions in Rollover Analysis

1999-03-01
1999-01-0448
The significant previous papers, which provide the scientific basis for rollover accident reconstruction, are discussed with regard as to how this knowledge can be applied using HVE1 and 3-D Studio MAX2. ...Computer simulation and animation are used to build upon traditional methodologies for the evaluation of rollover accidents. The use of computer simulation allows for a more complete and detailed reconstruction than is possible with traditional methods. ...The use of computer animation allows a superior presentation of the reconstruction with detailed analytical results and real time visualization employing 3-D computer graphics.
Technical Paper

Scale Model Tests of Vehicle Motions

1993-03-01
930660
The understanding of vehicle and occupant motions is at the heart of vehicle accident reconstruction. Testing is frequently done to understand, verify and demonstrate accident motions and dynamics.
Technical Paper

Drag and Steering Effects of Under Inflated and Deflated Tires

1997-02-24
970954
The increased drag and steering effects of under inflated or deflated tires are frequently an issue in an accident reconstruction. This paper documents the results of a series of tests conducted to determine the magnitude and effects of under inflated or deflated tires on cars and light trucks. ...These effects are commonly suggested to be the cause of driver loss of control and subsequent vehicular accidents. The increased drag and steering effects of under inflated or deflated tires are frequently an issue in an accident reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Essential Considerations in Delta-V Determination

2001-10-01
2001-01-3165
While Delta-V has been one of the most used indicators of accident severity for vehicle occupants, its actual determination remains a mystery to many who refer to it and use it.
Technical Paper

Empirical and Pictorial Results of Vehicle Tip-Over Impact Tests

1993-03-01
930664
A combination of metal roof passenger vehicles, an open top convertible passenger vehicle and enclosed multiple purpose utility vehicles were subjected to tip-over-the-front-end type pitch-over tests. The resulting roof crush and occupant compartment intrusion are presented in empirical and pictorial format. The tip-over roof crush performance is discussed relative to other recent side-over type rollover literature and to the FMVSS 216 on Roof Crush Resistance for Passenger Cars.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Vehicle Kinematics Using GPS and Other Technologies

2013-04-08
2013-01-0769
A study was conducted in order to assess the ability of tablet computers and GPS surveying equipment to measure vehicle kinematics. Although designed for other purposes, these devices have advanced electronics and data capture abilities that can be used to record a history of position data in four dimensions (x, y, z, and time). Many users of this type of equipment might not be aware of this. In contrast, several currently accepted devices for measuring and relating vehicle position, velocity, acceleration, and time are capable of only uniaxial and/or unidirectional measurements. Through a series of simple experiments, vehicular motion was generated through in-line braking to a stop, driving in a circle, and braking to a stop in a curve.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Analysis of a Vehicle in Flight

1993-03-01
930652
When vehicles are launched (e.g. from a ramp) or drive off a cliff, large angular motions about several axes may ensue before the first impact. This paper presents a rational approach to solving for the large angular motions in terms of Euler angles, making use of Euler's equations for rotation of rigid bodies. Wheel forces are assumed to act vertically to the horizontal surface on which motion commences. The method is amenable to braking forces and side loads (not presented). The appendix provides a brief resume of the linearized equations of motion including braking.
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