Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Analytical Approach to the Robust Design of Dimensional Datum Schemes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0500
This simplified approach can be used with either the first order Taylor series approximation or Monte Carlo simulation to study the statistical characteristics of datum scheme variations. A headlamp case study is presented that shows the application procedures and demonstrates that both Taylor series and Monte Carlo methods generate comparable results, but the former offers more efficiency and convenience due to its close form formulation. ...A headlamp case study is presented that shows the application procedures and demonstrates that both Taylor series and Monte Carlo methods generate comparable results, but the former offers more efficiency and convenience due to its close form formulation.
Technical Paper

Design and CFD Analysis of an NHRA Funny Car Body

2008-12-02
2008-01-3003
Several challenges were presented in this project: (1) This was the first time a General Motors drag racing body for use in professional classes (Funny Car or otherwise) was ever designed in CAD. (2) The body was originally designed as a 2007 Chevrolet Monte Carlo. After the tooling was completed, changes in Chevrolet’s product lineup required that the body be changed to a 2007 Impala SS. (3) Budget constraints precluded CFD analysis until after the bodies were already being manufactured.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Airborne Road Noise Reduction of a Passenger Vehicle

2003-05-05
2003-01-1407
To provide further details of the primary paths, intensity maps of identified panels were measured allowing detailed reconstruction of the contributory panels. The SEA model, insertion loss, and intensity maps aided in providing possible design fixes that will effectively reduce road noise.
Technical Paper

Automation of Structural Fatigue/Reliability Assessment Using iSIGHT, MSC/Nastran and nCode

2005-04-11
2005-01-0823
The goal was to automate the entire analytical process of structural fatigue life variation assessment with respect to the variations associated with the geometry such as thickness, material properties and loading conditions. Consequently, the structural reliability is evaluated systematically. This process automation has been realized by using an internally developed software package called Structural Fatigue/Reliability Sensitivity II (i.e. FRS II). The package is a bundle of MSC/Nastran, nCode, iSIGHT, and internally developed program scripts.
Technical Paper

Designing Automotive Subsystems Using Virtual Manufacturing and Distributed Computing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0288
Adopting robust design principles is a proven methodology for increasing design reliability. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) has incorporated robust design principles into their Signal Delivery Subsystem (SDSS) development process by moving traditional prototype manufacturing and test functions from hardware to software. This virtual manufacturing technique, where subsystems are built and tested using simulation software, increases the number of possible prototype iterations while simultaneously decreasing the time required to gather statistically meaningful test results. This paper describes how virtual manufacturing was developed using distributed computing.
Technical Paper

Coupling Meshfree Methods with Reliability Analysis Techniques

2003-03-03
2003-01-0145
This report describes the use of meshfree methods for response and design sensitivity calculations within structural reliability analysis when geometric shape is a random variable. Brief descriptions of meshfree methods and advanced probabilistic methods are provided. An existing interface between the probabilistic analysis and traditional finite element method is modified to allow the use of meshfree methods for response and design sensitivity calculations within the probabilistic analysis routine. Two examples that treat design shape as a random variable are presented to assess the accuracy and use of meshfree methods for reliability analysis.
Technical Paper

Multi Objective Robust Optimization for Idle Performance

2006-04-03
2006-01-0757
This paper presents a pioneer work and first time application of Multi Objective Robust Optimization to analytically improve Idle Shake Performance. The method is developed to obtain a robust design with multiple objectives under consideration along with managing material property variation. It was a Robust Optimization on top of Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm, Robu-MOGA. The design variables in the study included the nominal values and tolerances of Sound Transmission Loss property, and interior material Absorption property. The analytical objective was not only to minimize the peak airborne noise at each specified frequency, but also to reduce the total cost and the total mass of the materials. In the study, AutoSEA (statistical energy analysis) from ESI Software, Inc. was used as the solver. AutoSEA was integrated with iSIGHT from Engineous Software, Inc.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Robust Optimization for Performances of Noise & Vibration and Impact Hardness & Memory Shake

2009-04-20
2009-01-0341
This paper demonstrates the benefit of using simulation and robust optimization for the problem of balancing vehicle noise, vibration, and ride performance over road impacts. The psychophysics associated with perception of vehicle performance on an impact is complex because the occupants encounter both tactile and audible stimuli. Tactile impact vibration has multiple dimensions, such as impact hardness and memory shake. Audible impact sound also affects occupant perception of the vehicle quality. This paper uses multiple approaches to produce the similar, robust, optimized tuning strategies for impact performance. A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project was established to help identify a balanced, optimized solution. The CAE simulations were combined with software tools such as iSIGHT and internally developed Kriging software to identify response surfaces and find optimal tuning.
Technical Paper

A Downforce Optimization Study for a Racing Car Shape

2005-04-11
2005-01-0545
A new process is developed for the aerodynamic shape optimization of racing cars using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The process is based on using the mesh morphing techniques to create new designs for analysis by morphing the CFD mesh of the original design. The resulting improvements in the analysis turnaround time allow a quick exploration of the design parameters for determining the optimum aerodynamic design. The approach is used to perform a parametric study to optimize a racing car shape for maximum downforce. The analysis procedure used for the CFD analysis is tuned to ensure grid independence and accuracy of the predictions. The parametric study shows that the morpher-based process can quickly and precisely create designs for the CFD analysis. This process can become the foundation for the automated aerodynamic design optimization of the racing cars.
Technical Paper

A FEA based Procedure to Perform Statistical Energy Analysis

2003-05-05
2003-01-1553
A technique which uses Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to derive important parameters involved in SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) is discussed. Application of the method to a variety of structures has yielded good correlation with experimentally generated results. SEA parameters including Coupling Loss Factors (CLFs), modal densities, and subsystem equivalent masses were obtained. The technique has the advantage of incorporating structural detail to enhance SEA predictions at lower frequencies where global modes are important, and it can be applied early in the design phase since no hardware is required. With this study, SEA is more readily applied to structure-borne noise problems in vehicles.
Journal Article

Vehicle Level Brake Drag Target Setting for EPA Fuel Economy Certification

2016-09-18
2016-01-1925
The strong focus on reducing brake drag, driven by a historic ramp-up in global fuel economy and carbon emissions standards, has led to renewed research on brake caliper drag behaviors and how to measure them. However, with the increased knowledge of the range of drag behaviors that a caliper can exhibit comes a particularly vexing problem - how should this complex range of behaviors be represented in the overall road load of the vehicle? What conditions are encountered during coastdown and fuel economy testing, and how should brake drag be measured and represented in these conditions? With the Environmental Protection Agency (amongst other regulating agencies around the world) conducting audit testing, and the requirement that published road load values be repeatable within a specified range during these audits, the importance of answering these questions accurately is elevated. This paper studies these questions, and even offers methodology for addressing them.
Technical Paper

Robust Electronic Control System Design Requires Signal Delivery Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-0892
Signal delivery is the means of translating a physical parameter from a sensor measurement to the application software in the electronic controller. Signal delivery is also translating a digital word from the application software to an actuator response. In both cases, there are many transform functions along the path that will introduce noise, error, and non-linearity. This paper will discuss the importance of understanding the error and sensitivity to variation that signal delivery analysis provides. The analysis will direct design change to improve control system robustness as well as decisions for failure events.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical and Scaling Bases for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values

2003-10-27
2003-22-0009
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, EuroSID2 and SID-IIs.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical and Scaling Basis for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values

2016-11-07
2016-22-0018
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, ES-2 and SID-IIs.
Technical Paper

Development of the Direct Nonmethane Hydrocarbon Measurement Technique for Vehicle Testing

2003-03-03
2003-01-0390
The Automotive Industry/Government Emissions Research CRADA (AIGER) has been working to develop a new methodology for the direct determination of nonmethane hydrocarbons (DNMHC) in vehicle testing. This new measurement technique avoids the need for subtraction of a separately determined methane value from the total hydrocarbon measurement as is presently required by the Code of Federal Regulations. This paper will cover the historical aspects of the development program, which was initiated in 1993 and concluded in 2002. A fast, gas chromatographic (GC) column technology was selected and developed for the measurement of the nonmethane hydrocarbons directly, without any interference or correction being caused by the co-presence of sample methane. This new methodology chromatographically separates the methane from the nonmethane hydrocarbons, and then measures both the methane and the backflushed, total nonmethane hydrocarbons using standard flame ionization detection (FID).
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Flow Around a Generic SUV

2004-03-08
2004-01-0228
The results of an experimental investigation of the flow in the near wake of a generic Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) model are presented. The main goals of the study are to gain a better understanding of the external aerodynamics of SUVs, and to obtain a comprehensive experimental database that can be used as a benchmark to validate math-based CFD simulations for external aerodynamics. Data obtained in this study include the instantaneous and mean pressures, as well as mean velocities and turbulent quantities at various locations in the near wake. Mean pressure coefficients on the base of the SUV model vary from −0.23 to −0.1. The spectrum of the pressure coefficient fluctuation at the base of the model has a weak peak at a Strouhal number of 0.07. PIV measurements show a complex three-dimensional recirculation region behind the model of length approximately 1.2 times the width of the model.
Technical Paper

Rollover Crash Tests-The Influence of Roof Strength on Injury Mechanics

1985-12-01
851734
Eight lateral dolly rollover tests were conducted on 1983 Chevrolet Malibusata nominal speed of 51.5 km/h (32 mi/h). Four of the vehicles had rollcages, and four had standard production roofs. Unrestrained outboard front GM Hybrid ill dummies with head and neck transducers were used. Numerous cameras documented the vehicle and dummy movements. Detailed vehicle kinematics data allowed quantitative analysis of the conditions for head and neck loads. For both roof structures, the dummies moved upward and outward from their seats due to rotation and acceleration of the vehicle. High head/neck loads were measured when the head contacted a part of the car experiencing a large change in velocity, often that part of the car which struck the ground. The results of this work indicate that roof strength is not an important factor in the mechanics of head/neck injuries in rollover collisions for unrestrained occupants.
X