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Journal Article

Comparison of Near-Field Structure and Growth of a Diesel Spray Using Light-Based Optical Microscopy and X-Ray Radiography

2014-04-01
2014-01-1412
In this study we seek to establish a relationship between spray boundary obtained via optical diffused backlighting and the fuel concentration derived from tomographic reconstruction of x-ray radiography. Measurements are repeated in different facilities at the same specified operating conditions on the “Spray A” fuel injector of the Engine Combustion Network, which has a nozzle diameter of 90 μm. ...Tomographic reconstruction for the ensemble-average fuel mass distribution (or liquid volume fraction) shows that the near-field mixing layers and growth are related to the nozzle exit geometry, with an intact liquid core moving downstream to approximately 2.5 mm.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical and System Dynamics Methods for Modeling Wave Propagation in the Intake Manifold of a Single-Cylinder Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0139
The first approach is based on a quasi-3D finite volume method, which relies on a geometrical reconstruction of the calculation domain using networks of zero-dimensional elements. The second approach is based on a model-order reduction procedure that projects the nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations describing the 1D unsteady flow in engine manifolds onto a predefined basis.
Journal Article

Time-resolved X-ray Tomography of Gasoline Direct Injection Sprays

2015-09-01
2015-01-1873
Traditional Fourier back-projection methods are not well-suited for this experiment, so a model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm has been employed in this particular application. Three gasoline direct injection sprays with various 6-hole patterns were studied at injection pressures of 100 to 175 bar and atmospheric back pressure, at selected axial positions several mm downstream of the nozzle.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-3D Model for the Simulation of the Unsteady Flows in I.C. Engine Pipe Systems

2012-04-16
2012-01-0675
A second step focused on the study of the acoustic perfomance of a cylindrical expansion chamber with the aim of investigating the dissipation introduced by the flux limiter and the importance of the shape reconstruction for capturing higher order modes. The final validation was carried out on a single-cylinder engine for motorbike application, where the components exhibiting a high degree of complexity, namely the airbox and the silencer, were modeled by means of the quasi-3D. following a pure geometrical shape recontruction criterion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of Power Dissipation of Battery Cells for Space Environment

2002-07-15
2002-01-2544
An experimental campaign is presented aiming at the characterization of thermal dissipation of batteries to be used on board of small satellites. A suitably designed device allows to manage automatically the orbital cycling simulation between battery cell charge and discharge. The cell thermal performance is characterized in various combinations of temperature, discharge current and Depth of Discharge. The gathered data are used for providing guidelines in the design of a family of Italian Small Satellites.
Technical Paper

Test-Model Correlation in Spacecraft Thermal Control by Means of MonteCarlo Techniques

2007-07-09
2007-01-3120
In the paper some methods are presented, with the corresponding practical examples, related to MonteCarlo (MC) techniques for thermal model/test correlation purposes. The MonteCarlo techniques applied to model correlation are intended to be used as an alternative to empirical ‘manual’ correlation techniques, gradients methods, matrix methods based on least square fit minimization. First of all, Design Of Experiments (DoE) tools are used to determine the model response to uncertain parameters and the confidence level of such a response. A sensitivity map is built, allowing the design of the test to maximize the response of the system to the uncertain parameters. Techniques derived from the extreme statistics are used to extrapolate data beyond test limits, with a sufficient confidence in the queue behaviour.
Technical Paper

MonteCarlo Techniques in Thermal Analysis – Design Margins Determination Using Reduced Models and Experimental Data

2006-07-17
2006-01-2113
In the paper several application techniques of MonteCarlo (MC) method applied to thermal analysis of space vehicles are presented. Although these methods are widely used in other engineering domains, their introduction to the thermal one is quite recent and not fully developed in the industrial practice. This paper aims at showing that, even without demanding computation resources (all what presented has been obtained with a single processor PC) MonteCarlo analysis techniques, in a preliminary design phase, can support and integrate engineering judgment of the thermal designer. In particular, it is exploited the applicability of the method to reduced thermal models, with a clear advantage in terms of computation time. An original approach is proposed, and results are shown. The papers shows the applicability of the MC method to the case when experimental data of the uncertain parameters are available, using the bootstrap re-sampling techniques.
Journal Article

Accelerated Testing of Brake Hoses for Durability Assessment

2017-03-28
2017-01-0389
The durability performance of brake hoses is a crucial issue for such components. Accelerated fatigue testing of brake hoses is necessary for understanding achievable lifetime, actually computation of durability is quite cumbersome due to the many different materials the hoses are made from. Despite SAE standards are available, accelerated testing of brake hoses subject to actual torsional and bending stresses seem important to provide relevant feedback to designers. In this paper, an innovative methodology for assessing the fatigue behavior of brake hoses of road vehicles is proposed. A dynamic testbed is specifically designed and realized, able to reproduce the actual assembly conditions of the hoses fitted into a vehicle suspension. The designed testbed allows to replicate actual loading conditions on the brake hoses by simulating the vertical dynamics and steering of the suspension system together with brake pressure.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Seat Design and Crash Simulations

2015-04-14
2015-01-1472
The lightweight seat of a high performance car is designed taking into account a rear impact, i.e. the crash due to an impulse applied from the rear. The basic parameters of the seat structure are derived resorting to simulations of a crash with a test dummy positioned on the seat. The simulations provide the forces acting at the seat structure, in particular the forces applied at the joint between the seat cushion and the seat backrest are taken into account. Such a joint is simulated as a plastic hinge and dissipates some of the crash energy. The simulations are validated by means of indoor tests with satisfactory results. A tool has been developed for the preliminary design of lightweight seats for high performance cars.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emissions Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Oxygen-Enriched Air

2018-09-10
2018-01-1785
Oxygen enriched air (EA) is a well known industrial mixture in which the content of oxygen is higher respect the atmospheric one, in the range 22-35%. Oxygen EA can be obtained by desorption from water, taking advantage of the higher oxygen solubility in water compared to the nitrogen one, since the Henry constants of this two gases are different. The production of EA by this new approach was already studied by experimental runs and theoretical considerations. New results using salt water are reported. EA promoted combustion is considered as one of the most interesting technologies to improve the performance in diesel engines and to simultaneously control and reduce pollution. This paper explores, by means of 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations, the effects of EA on the performance and exhaust emissions of a high-speed direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Integrated Breathing Model and Multi-Variable Control Approach for Air Management in Advanced Gasoline Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0658
The evolution of automotive engines calls for the design of electronic control systems optimizing the engine performance in terms of reduced fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, the opportunities provided by modern engines have not yet completely exploited, since the adopted control strategies are still largely developed in a very heuristic way and rely on a number of SISO (Single Input Single Output) designs. On the contrary, the strong coupling between the available actuators calls for a MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output) control design approach. To this regard, the availability of reliable dynamic engine models plays an important role in the design of engine control and diagnostic systems, allowing for a significant reduction of the development times and costs. This paper presents a control-oriented model of the air-path system of today's gasoline internal combustion engines.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Control for Feasible Region of Active Collision Avoidance

2017-03-28
2017-01-0045
Therefore, it is significant to establish the feasible region of active collision avoidance to choose the optimal way to avoid traffic accidents. This paper focuses on the steering control of an autonomous vehicle to track the planned trajectory and to perform an emergency collision avoidance maneuver.
Technical Paper

Soot Formation Modelling of Spray-A Using a Transported PDF Approach

2015-09-01
2015-01-1849
Numerical simulations of soot formation were performed for n-dodecane spray using the transported probability density function (TPDF) method. Liquid n-dodecane was injected with 1500 bar fuel pressure into a constant-volume vessel with an ambient temperature, oxygen volume fraction and density of 900 K, 15% and 22.8 kg/m3, respectively. The interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model was employed to close the micro-mixing term. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the realizable k-ε turbulence model were used to provide turbulence information to the TPDF solver. A 53-species reduced n-dodecane chemical mechanism was employed to evaluate the reaction rates. Soot formation was modelled with an acetylene-based two-equation model which accounts for simultaneous soot particle inception, surface growth, coagulation and oxidation by O2 and OH.
Journal Article

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Air Pollutant Emissions of Electric Vehicles in the United States

2013-04-08
2013-01-1283
While electric vehicles including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery-powered electric vehicles (BEVs) are considered as promising alternative vehicle/fuel systems to significantly reduce petroleum consumption of the transportation sector, it is important to analyze the emission characteristics and to assess the emission reduction potentials of electric vehicles so that their environmental impacts in terms of climate change, air quality, as well as human health effects could be better understood. To fulfill this objective, we explicitly analyzed the emission characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHG) and criteria air pollutants (CAP, representing VOC, CO, NOx, PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅, and SOx,) of the U.S. power sector, a pivotal upstream sector that impacts the life-cycle GHG and CAP emissions associated with electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Uncertainty in Predictions of Kinetically Modulated Combustion: Application to HCCI Using a Detailed Transportation Fuel Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1251
Simulation of chemical kinetic processes in combustion engine environments has become ubiquitous towards the understanding of combustion phenomenology, the evaluation of controlling parameters, and the design of configurations and/or control strategies. Such calculations are not free from error however, and the interpretation of simulation results must be considered within the context of uncertainties in the chemical kinetic model. Uncertainties arise due to structural issues (e.g., included/missing reaction pathways), as well as inaccurate descriptions of kinetic rate parameters and thermochemistry. In fundamental apparatuses like rapid compression machines and shock tubes, computed constant-volume ignition delay times for simple, single-component fuels can have variations on the order of factors of 2-4.
Journal Article

Towards the Use of Eulerian Field PDF Methods for Combustion Modeling in IC Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1144
Detailed chemistry and turbulence-chemistry interaction need to be properly taken into account for a realistic combustion simulation of IC engines where advanced combustion modes, multiple injections and stratified combustion involve a wide range of combustion regimes and require a proper description of several phenomena such as auto-ignition, flame stabilization, diffusive combustion and lean premixed flame propagation. To this end, different approaches are applied and the most used ones rely on the well-stirred reactor or flamelet assumption. However, well-mixed models do not describe correctly flame structure, while unsteady flamelet models cannot easily predict premixed flame propagation and triple flames. A possible alternative for them is represented by transported probability density functions (PDF) methods, which have been applied widely and effectively for modeling turbulent reacting flows under a wide range of combustion regimes.
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