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Technical Paper

Accident Analysis of a Two-Lane National Highway in India

2015-01-14
2015-26-0162
On National Highways (NHs), major share of accidents (about 29%) and number of persons killed (35.3%) are observed out of total accidents. ...The above-cited detailed fatal accident study results provide useful inferences that not only appreciates accident causal factors, pattern (hourly, daily, monthly and yearly) and characteristics (type of crash, risk (crash) involved in maneuvering of various modes including pedestrians, etc.) for two-lane NH section in India but also helps to suggest effective remedial measures for the studied NH section to curb fatal accidents. ...Road accidents and persons killed in India have been reported to the tune of 4,90,383 and 1,38,258 respectively during 2012.
Technical Paper

Tomographic PIV Evaluation of In-Cylinder Flow Evolution and Effect of Engine Speed

2016-04-05
2016-01-0638
Two directional projections of captured flow-field were pre-processed to reconstruct the 3D flow-field by using the MART (multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique) algorithm. Ensemble average flow pattern was used to investigate the air-flow behavior inside the combustion chamber during the intake and compression strokes of an engine cycle.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Air-Flow Characteristics Using Tomographic PIV at Different Engine Speeds, Intake Air Temperatures and Intake Valve Deactivation in a Single Cylinder Optical Research Engine

2016-02-01
2016-28-0001
Two directional projections of captured flow-field were pre-processed to reconstruct the 3D flow-field by using the MART (multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique) algorithm. Ensemble average flow pattern was used to investigate the air-flow behavior inside the combustion chamber during the intake and compression strokes of an engine cycle.
Journal Article

Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry for Flow Analysis in a Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0599
Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influence the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake and compression stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
Technical Paper

Rollover Propensity of Three-Wheel Scooter Taxis

2004-03-08
2004-01-1622
An analysis of the rollover propensity of a make of a TSR used extensively in S.E. Asia roads is presented using a 6-degree of freedom simulation. Verification of the model was against measured accelerations measured over speed breakers. Rollover stability was analyzed through simulating Increasing Steer, NHTSA J Turn, and Road Edge Recovery maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Head/Neck Impact Responses for Helmeted and Unhelmeted Motorcyclists

1981-10-01
811029
The purpose of this study was to assess, by use of computer simulations, the effectiveness of motorcycle helmets in reducing head and neck injuries in motorcyclist impacts. The computer model used was the MVMA Two-Dimensional Crash Victim Simulator. The study investigated a wide variety of impact conditions in order to establish a broad overall view of the effectiveness of helmets. It was found that helmet use invariably reduces dynamic responses which have a role in producing head injury and, in addition, almost always reduces the severity of neck response as well. For no configuration or condition does the helmet greatly increase the likelihood of neck injury. Thus, these simulations of a wide spectrum of motorcyclist impacts provide further evidence that helmet use significantly reduces the likelihood and severity of both head and neck injuries. This study was supported by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.
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