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Technical Paper

Soil Trip Rollover Simulation and Occupant Kinematics in Real World Accident

Soil trip-over simulation was carried out based on real world accidents. Based on rigid body dynamics, PC-Crash software was chosen to make an accident reconstruction analysis of some selected cases chosen from an accident database (NASS-CDS). ...With SUVs and minivans accounting for a larger share of the US market in the past decade, rollover accidents have drawn greater attention, leading to more active research from different perspectives. ...This ranges from investigations for elucidating the basic causes and mechanisms of rollover accidents to studies of more advanced occupant protection measures. As the phenomenon of a rollover accident is longer in duration than frontal, side or rear impacts, it is relatively difficult [1] to simulate such accidents for experimental verification and also for proper evaluation of occupant restraint system performance.
Technical Paper

Continuous Simulation of Automobile Running and Crash Using a Finite Element Method

Vehicle's dynamic pre-crash state and associated occupant motion may influence the damage and injury of traffic accidents. Therefore it is important to simulate phenomena before and after impact continuously in order to analyze the damage mechanisms of traffic accidents. ...Therefore it is important to simulate phenomena before and after impact continuously in order to analyze the damage mechanisms of traffic accidents. In this study, a finite element vehicle model that can simulate both running and crash is developed and verified by some experimental results, and the methods to speed up and stabilize computation that enable continuous simulation are developed and compared with conventional methods. ...A numerical example that simulates a real traffic accident situation is also shown.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Robustness of Vehicle Crashworthiness Relative to the Impact Angle

This importance can also be inferred from the fact that almost all of the accidents classified as frontal crashes in real-world driving have an impact angle. The first step of this research was to make clear the differences between inline offset impacts and oblique offset impacts, focusing on the behavior of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Research of Structural Interaction between of two cars in Car to Car Compatibility

Incompatibility between two colliding cars is becoming an important issue in passive safety engineering. Among various phenomena, indicating signs of incompatibility, over-riding and under-riding are likely caused by geometrical incompatibility in vertical direction. The issue of over-riding and under-riding is, therefore, not only a problem for partner-protection but also a possible disadvantage in self-protection. One of the possible solutions of this dual contradictory problem is to have a good structural interaction between the front-ends of two cars. Studies have been done to develop a test protocol for assessment of this interaction and to define criteria for evaluation but mostly in terms of aggressivity, which is a term describing incompatibility of a relatively stronger car. In this study, it was hypothesized that homogeneous front-end could be a possible better solution for good structural interaction.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Finite Element Model of a Vehicle Occupant

A finite element human model has been developed to simulate occupant behavior and to estimate injuries in real-world car crashes. The model represents an average adult male of the US population in a driving posture. Physical geometry, mechanical characteristics and joint structures were replicated as precise as possible. The total number of nodes and materials is around 67,000 and 1,000 respectively. Each part of the model was not only validated against human test data in the literature but also for realistic loading conditions. Additional tests were newly conducted to reproduce realistic loading to human subjects. A data set obtained in human volunteer tests was used for validating the neck part. The head-neck kinematics and responses in low-speed rear impacts were compared between the measured and calculated results. The validity of the lower extremity part was examined by comparing the tibia force in a foot impact between the test data and simulation results.
Technical Paper

A Severe Ankle and Foot Injury in Frontal Crashes and Its Mechanism

In a frontal automotive crash, the driver's foot is usually stepping on the brake pedal as an instinctive response to avoid a collision. The tensile force generated in the Achilles tendon produces a compressive preload on the tibia. If there is intrusion of the toe board after the crash, an additional external force is applied to the driver's foot. A series of dynamic impact tests using human cadaveric specimens was conducted to investigate the combined effect of muscle preloading and external force. A constant tendon force was applied to the calcaneus while an external impact force was applied to the forefoot by a rigid pendulum. Preloading the tibia significantly increased the tibial axial force and the combination of these forces resulted in five tibial pylon fractures out of sixteen specimens.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Research of Vehicle Body Stiffness and Strength for Car to Car Compatibility

In a CTC (car to car) crash, interaction between two vehicles is quite important. Interaction is primarily described by the contact area between two vehicles but interaction force (impact force) is also important for the entire crash phenomenon. In a frontal crash, impact force is resisted by the body structures, engine block, and tires. The resultant share of energy absorption, as well as the magnitude of body deformation, is greatly affected by the force profile. It is desired, therefore, to evaluate those factors of vehicle bodies in order to achieve CTC compatibility. There are some technical obstacles, however, in measuring those factors in testing. Impact force, for instance, cannot be measured directly in a CTC crash test unless load cells are installed in body frames. It is also difficult to analyze body deformation in a CTC crash test because both vehicles are moving.