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Technical Paper

Motion Capture Applications in Forensic Injury Accident Reconstruction

Forensic injury accident reconstruction is used to determine what happened in an accident, typically for use in a court of law. ...In the other case, the motion capture system was used to determine the circumstances of impact trauma that was incurred in an asphalt roller accident.
Technical Paper

The Use of Single Moving Vehicle Testing to Duplicate the Dynamic Vehicle Response From Impacts Between Two Moving Vehicles

The results of a reconstruction of the accident will also be described. Next, simulations of the accident using the EDSMAC vehicle impact model included in the HVE-2D computer program developed by EDC Corporation are presented in which both vehicles are moving, only the struck vehicle is moving, and only the striking vehicle is moving. ...The acceptability of this method of testing is not as obvious for the reconstruction of accidents where the impact is non-central, or the angle of impact is not orthogonal. ...While the pre- and post-impact speeds of the vehicles involved in an accident can not be duplicated using this method, closing speeds, vehicle damage, vehicle speed changes and vehicle accelerations can be duplicated.
Technical Paper

Accuracy Assessment of Three-Dimensional Site Features Generated with Aid of Photogrammetric Epipolar Lines in PhotoModeler and Using Minimal sUAS Imagery

Photogrammetry is widely used in the accident reconstruction community to extract three-dimensional information from photographs. This article extends a prior study conducted by the authors, whereby model accuracy was assessed for a technique that exploited vehicle edges and epipolar line projections to construct 3D vehicle models, by examining 3D roadway and site features.
Technical Paper

Accuracy Assessment of Three-Dimensional Vehicle Edge Features Generated with Aid of Photogrammetric Epipolar Lines

Photogrammetry is widely used in the automotive and accident reconstruction communities to extract three-dimensional information from photographs. Prior studies in the literature have demonstrated the accuracy of such methods when photographs contain easily-identifiable, distinct points; however, it is often desirable to determine measurements for locations where a seam, edge, or contour line is available.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical and System Dynamics Methods for Modeling Wave Propagation in the Intake Manifold of a Single-Cylinder Engine

The first approach is based on a quasi-3D finite volume method, which relies on a geometrical reconstruction of the calculation domain using networks of zero-dimensional elements. The second approach is based on a model-order reduction procedure that projects the nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations describing the 1D unsteady flow in engine manifolds onto a predefined basis.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-3D Model for the Simulation of the Unsteady Flows in I.C. Engine Pipe Systems

A second step focused on the study of the acoustic perfomance of a cylindrical expansion chamber with the aim of investigating the dissipation introduced by the flux limiter and the importance of the shape reconstruction for capturing higher order modes. The final validation was carried out on a single-cylinder engine for motorbike application, where the components exhibiting a high degree of complexity, namely the airbox and the silencer, were modeled by means of the quasi-3D. following a pure geometrical shape recontruction criterion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of Power Dissipation of Battery Cells for Space Environment

An experimental campaign is presented aiming at the characterization of thermal dissipation of batteries to be used on board of small satellites. A suitably designed device allows to manage automatically the orbital cycling simulation between battery cell charge and discharge. The cell thermal performance is characterized in various combinations of temperature, discharge current and Depth of Discharge. The gathered data are used for providing guidelines in the design of a family of Italian Small Satellites.
Technical Paper

Test-Model Correlation in Spacecraft Thermal Control by Means of MonteCarlo Techniques

In the paper some methods are presented, with the corresponding practical examples, related to MonteCarlo (MC) techniques for thermal model/test correlation purposes. The MonteCarlo techniques applied to model correlation are intended to be used as an alternative to empirical ‘manual’ correlation techniques, gradients methods, matrix methods based on least square fit minimization. First of all, Design Of Experiments (DoE) tools are used to determine the model response to uncertain parameters and the confidence level of such a response. A sensitivity map is built, allowing the design of the test to maximize the response of the system to the uncertain parameters. Techniques derived from the extreme statistics are used to extrapolate data beyond test limits, with a sufficient confidence in the queue behaviour.
Technical Paper

MonteCarlo Techniques in Thermal Analysis – Design Margins Determination Using Reduced Models and Experimental Data

In the paper several application techniques of MonteCarlo (MC) method applied to thermal analysis of space vehicles are presented. Although these methods are widely used in other engineering domains, their introduction to the thermal one is quite recent and not fully developed in the industrial practice. This paper aims at showing that, even without demanding computation resources (all what presented has been obtained with a single processor PC) MonteCarlo analysis techniques, in a preliminary design phase, can support and integrate engineering judgment of the thermal designer. In particular, it is exploited the applicability of the method to reduced thermal models, with a clear advantage in terms of computation time. An original approach is proposed, and results are shown. The papers shows the applicability of the MC method to the case when experimental data of the uncertain parameters are available, using the bootstrap re-sampling techniques.
Journal Article

Accelerated Testing of Brake Hoses for Durability Assessment

The durability performance of brake hoses is a crucial issue for such components. Accelerated fatigue testing of brake hoses is necessary for understanding achievable lifetime, actually computation of durability is quite cumbersome due to the many different materials the hoses are made from. Despite SAE standards are available, accelerated testing of brake hoses subject to actual torsional and bending stresses seem important to provide relevant feedback to designers. In this paper, an innovative methodology for assessing the fatigue behavior of brake hoses of road vehicles is proposed. A dynamic testbed is specifically designed and realized, able to reproduce the actual assembly conditions of the hoses fitted into a vehicle suspension. The designed testbed allows to replicate actual loading conditions on the brake hoses by simulating the vertical dynamics and steering of the suspension system together with brake pressure.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Seat Design and Crash Simulations

The lightweight seat of a high performance car is designed taking into account a rear impact, i.e. the crash due to an impulse applied from the rear. The basic parameters of the seat structure are derived resorting to simulations of a crash with a test dummy positioned on the seat. The simulations provide the forces acting at the seat structure, in particular the forces applied at the joint between the seat cushion and the seat backrest are taken into account. Such a joint is simulated as a plastic hinge and dissipates some of the crash energy. The simulations are validated by means of indoor tests with satisfactory results. A tool has been developed for the preliminary design of lightweight seats for high performance cars.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emissions Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Oxygen-Enriched Air

Oxygen enriched air (EA) is a well known industrial mixture in which the content of oxygen is higher respect the atmospheric one, in the range 22-35%. Oxygen EA can be obtained by desorption from water, taking advantage of the higher oxygen solubility in water compared to the nitrogen one, since the Henry constants of this two gases are different. The production of EA by this new approach was already studied by experimental runs and theoretical considerations. New results using salt water are reported. EA promoted combustion is considered as one of the most interesting technologies to improve the performance in diesel engines and to simultaneously control and reduce pollution. This paper explores, by means of 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations, the effects of EA on the performance and exhaust emissions of a high-speed direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Integrated Breathing Model and Multi-Variable Control Approach for Air Management in Advanced Gasoline Engine

The evolution of automotive engines calls for the design of electronic control systems optimizing the engine performance in terms of reduced fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, the opportunities provided by modern engines have not yet completely exploited, since the adopted control strategies are still largely developed in a very heuristic way and rely on a number of SISO (Single Input Single Output) designs. On the contrary, the strong coupling between the available actuators calls for a MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output) control design approach. To this regard, the availability of reliable dynamic engine models plays an important role in the design of engine control and diagnostic systems, allowing for a significant reduction of the development times and costs. This paper presents a control-oriented model of the air-path system of today's gasoline internal combustion engines.
Journal Article

Towards the Use of Eulerian Field PDF Methods for Combustion Modeling in IC Engines

Detailed chemistry and turbulence-chemistry interaction need to be properly taken into account for a realistic combustion simulation of IC engines where advanced combustion modes, multiple injections and stratified combustion involve a wide range of combustion regimes and require a proper description of several phenomena such as auto-ignition, flame stabilization, diffusive combustion and lean premixed flame propagation. To this end, different approaches are applied and the most used ones rely on the well-stirred reactor or flamelet assumption. However, well-mixed models do not describe correctly flame structure, while unsteady flamelet models cannot easily predict premixed flame propagation and triple flames. A possible alternative for them is represented by transported probability density functions (PDF) methods, which have been applied widely and effectively for modeling turbulent reacting flows under a wide range of combustion regimes.
Technical Paper

Development of the Design of a Plug-In Hybrid-Electric Vehicle for the EcoCAR 3 Competition

The design of a performance hybrid electric vehicle includes a wide range of architecture possibilities. A large part of the design process is identifying reasonable vehicle architectures and vehicle performance capabilities. The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team designed a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of reducing the environmental impact of the vehicle, the Ohio State Camaro has been designed with a 44-mile all-electric range. It also features an 18.9 kWh Li-ion energy storage system, a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85) fuel, a 5-speed automated manual transmission, and a 150 kW peak electric machine. This report details the design and modeling process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 1 of the competition. The process included researching the customer needs of the vehicle, determining team design goals, initial modeling, and selecting a vehicle architecture.
Journal Article

Optimal Robust Design Optimization with Application to a Piezoelectric Brake

A robust optimization approach has been applied to the design of a piezoelectric brake. The force generated by the piezoelectric actuator is transmitted to the pad shoe through a lever. The optimal design of the lever is crucial for obtaining the desired performance of the brake. Increasing the stiffness and reducing the mass of the lever is the key problem for such kind of mechatronic brake. A trade off between mass and stiffness of the lever must be obtained. Multi-objective programming (MOP) has been applied in order to achieve the best compromise. In addition to MOP, the optimal robust design method has been applied to perform the optimal design not only by considering the performance of the system (the stiffness and mass of the lever) but also by taking into account the robustness (the sensitivity to the uncertain system parameters).
Technical Paper

Mission-based Design Space Exploration for Powertrain Electrification of Series Plugin Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are essential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions. However, when analyzing different segments of the transportation industry, for example, public transportation or different sizes of delivery trucks and how the HEV are used, it is clear that one powertrain may not be optimal in all situations. Choosing a hybrid powertrain architecture and proper component sizes for different applications is an important task to find the optimal trade-off between fuel economy, drivability, and vehicle cost. However, exploring and evaluating all possible architectures and component sizes is a time-consuming task. A search algorithm, using Gaussian Processes, is proposed that simultaneously explores multiple architecture options, to identify the Pareto-optimal solutions.
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of the Soot Deposition Mechanism in Diesel Particulate Filters

A computational, three-dimensional approach to investigate the behavior of diesel soot particles in the micro-channels of wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters is presented. The KIVA3V CFD code, already extended to solve the 2D conservation equations for porous media materials [1], has been enhanced to solve in 2-D and 3-D the governing equations for reacting and compressible flows through porous media in non axes-symmetric geometries. With respect to previous work [1], a different mathematical approach has been followed in the implementation of the numerical solver for porous media, in order to achieve a faster convergency as source terms were added to the governing equations. The Darcy pressure drop has been included in the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation has been extended to account for the thermal exchange between the gas flow and the porous wall.
Technical Paper

Design of a Grid-Friendly DC Fast Charge Station with Second Life Batteries

DC-fast charge (DCFC) may be amenable for widespread EV adoption. However, there are potential challenges associated with implementation and operation of the DCFC infrastructures. The integration of energy storage systems can limit the scale of grid installation required for DCFC and enable more efficient grid energy usage. In addition, second-life batteries (SLBs) can find application in DCFC, significantly reducing installation cost when compared to solutions based on new battery packs. However, both system architecture and control strategy require optimization to ensure an optimal use of SLBs, including degradation and thermal aspects. This study proposes an application of automotive SLBs for DCFC stations where high power grid connection is not available or feasible. Several SLBs are connected to the grid by means of low power chargers (e.g. L2 charging station), and a DC/DC converter controls the power to the EV power dispenser.