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Technical Paper

Side Impacts to the Passenger Compartment — Clinical Studies from Field Accident Investigations

1989-02-01
890379
The side impact, recently and currently the subject to of much debate, controversy and proposed NHTSA rule making, is a difficult type of crash to significantly reduce serious injuries and fatalites. Results from real-world crash investigations presents a confusing picture for the near-side passenger compartment crash. A direct relationship between the amount of crush and injury severity levels (MAIS) is not apparent. Exemplar cases of tow-a-way/injury crashes are presented at all AIS injury level of drivers in crashes with direct driver door crush damage.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Accident Investigation Methodology Using Analytical Techniques

1983-10-17
831609
The purpose of this paper is to describe a combination of state-of-the-art detailed accident investigation procedures, computerized vehicle crash and occupant modeling, and biomechanical analysis of human injury causation into a method for obtaining enhanced biomechanical data from car crashes. Four accident cases, out of eighteen investigated, were selected for detailed reconstruction. Three were frontal impacts while the fourth was lateral. ...Occupant motions, force interactions with vehicle components, accelerations on the various body segments, and much other information was produced in the simulation process and is reported in this paper along with scene and injury data from the accidents. The major conclusion reached was that the reconstructions, using largely preliminary data for the occupant and vehicle, were evaluated and the dynamic loadings predicted for application to the car occupants yielded injury results which were generally within accepted ranges of human tolerance data. ...Additional conclusions were reached about the quality of data describing the occupant, car, and accident needed for analytical reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Underride in Fatal Rear-End Truck Crashes

2000-12-04
2000-01-3521
For the 1997 data year, UMTRI's Center for National Truck Statistics collected data on rear underride as part of its Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) survey. Data collected included whether the truck had a rear underride guard, whether the striking vehicle underrode the truck, and how much underride occurred.
Technical Paper

Driver Status and Implications for Crash Safety

2006-10-16
2006-21-0028
Almost a million people are killed worldwide each year in motor vehicle crashes, over 42,000 of them in the U.S. Human/driver error (or induced error) is the most commonly identified contributing cause according to crash studies, especially studies conducted in the U.S. Accordingly, if crashes are to be reduced, a human-centered approach is needed. As part of its Intelligent Transportation Systems program, the U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) is funding several major projects (e.g., VII, IVBSS) concerned with active safety, warnings, and communications. As part of these and other projects, several meta-issues have arisen that deserve further attention.
Technical Paper

Seated Posture of Vehicle Occupants

1983-10-17
831617
This paper describes the methodology and results from a project involving development of anthropometrically based design specifications for a family of advanced adult anthropomorphic dummies. Selection of family members and anthropometric criteria for subject sample selection were based on expected applications of the devices and on an analysis of U.S. population survey data. This resulted in collection of data for dummy sizes including a small female, a mid-sized male, and a large male. The three phases of data collection included: 1. in-vehicle measurements to determine seat track position and seating posture preferred by the subjects for use in development of laboratory seat bucks; 2. measurement of subject/seat interface contours for fabrication of an average hard seat surface for use in the buck; and 3. measurement of standard anthropometry, seated anthropometry (in the buck), and three-dimensional surface landmark coordinates using standard and photogrammetric techniques.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Impact Energy and Direction on Thoracic Response

1983-10-17
831606
A test series using unembalmed cadavers was conducted to investigate thoracic response differences in lateral impacts between high energy (rib fractures produced) and low energy (no rib fractures produced) testing and also the response to low energy impacts for different impact directions (frontal, 45°, and lateral). Five of the test subjects were instrumented with a nine-accelerometer package and an eighteen-accelerometer array to measure thoracic response. Seven of the test subjects were instrumented with a triaxial accelerometer on the head and a six-accelerometer array to measure thoracic response. Impact events were performed with either the UMTRI pendulum impact device or the UMTRI pneumatic impact device. The subject was struck with a free-traveling mass (25 or 56 kg) which was fitted with either a 15 cm round or 20 cm square rigid metal surface.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Truck-Light Vehicle Crash Data for Truck Aggressivity Reduction

2001-11-12
2001-01-2726
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the University of Michigan Transportation Institute are investigating truck design countermeasures to provide safety benefits during collisions with light vehicles. The goal is to identify approaches that would best balance costs and benefits. This paper outlines the first phase of this study, an analysis of two-vehicle, truck/light vehicle crashes from 1996 through 1998 using several crash data bases to obtain a current description and determine the scope of the aggressivity problem. Truck fronts account for 60% of light vehicle fatalities in collisions with trucks. Collision with the front of a truck carries the highest probability of fatal (K) or incapacitating (A) injury. Truck sides account for about the same number of K and A-injuries combined as truck fronts, though injury probability is substantially lower than in crashes involving the front of a truck.
Technical Paper

Non-Head Impact Cervical Spine Injuries in Frontal Car Crashes to Lap-Shoulder Belted Occupants

1992-02-01
920560
Crash injury reduction via lap-shoulder belt use has been well documented. As any interior car component, lap-shoulder belts may be related to injury in certain crashes. Relatively unknown is the fact that cervical fractures or fracture-dislocations to restrained front seat occupants where, in the crash, no head contact was evidenced by both medical records and car inspection. An extensive review of the available world's literature on car crash injuries revealed more than 100 such cases. A review of the NASS 80-88 was also conducted, revealing more examples. Cases from the author's own files are also detailed.
Technical Paper

Upper Extremity Injuries Related to Air Bag Deployments

1994-03-01
940716
From our crash investigations of air bag equipped passenger cars, a subset of upper extremity injuries are presented that are related to air bag deployments. Minor hand, wrist or forearm injuries-contusions, abrasions, and sprains are not uncommonly reported. Infrequently, hand fractures have been sustained and, in isolated cases, fractures of the forearm bones or of the thumb and/or adjacent hand. The close proximity of the forearm or hand to the air bag module door is related to most of the fractures identified. Steering wheel air bag deployments can fling the hand-forearm into the instrument panel, rearview mirror or windshield as indicated by contact scuffs or tissue debris or the star burst (spider web) pattern of windshield breakage in front of the steering wheel.
Technical Paper

Repeatability of the Tilt-Table Test Method

1993-03-01
930832
Tilt-table testing is one means of quantifying the static roll stability of highway vehicles. By this technique, a test vehicle is subjected to a physical situation analogous to that experienced in a steady state turn. Although the analogy is not perfect, the simplicity and fidelity of the method make it an attractive means for estimating static rollover threshold. The NHTSA has suggested the tilt-table method as one means of regulating the roll stability properties of light trucks and utility vehicles. One consideration in evaluating the suitability of any test method for regulatory use is repeatability, both within and among testing facilities. As a first step toward evaluating the repeatability of the tilt-table method, an experimental study examining the sensitivity of tilt-table test results to variables associated with methodology and facility was conducted by UMTRI for the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association. This paper reports some of the findings of that study.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of a Prototype Pregnant Abdomen for the Small-Female Hybrid III ATD

2001-11-01
2001-22-0003
A new prototype pregnant abdomen for the Hybrid III small-female ATD is being developed and has been evaluated in a series of component and whole-dummy tests. The new abdomen uses a fluid-filled silicone-rubber bladder to represent the human uterus at 30-weeks gestation, and incorporates anthropometry based on measurements of pregnant women in an automotive driving posture. The response of the new pregnant abdomen to rigid-bar, belt, and close-proximity airbag loading closely matches the human cadaver response, which is thought to be representative to the response of the pregnant abdomen. In the current prototype, known as MAMA-2B (Maternal Anthropomorphic Measurement Apparatus, version 2B), the risk of adverse fetal outcome is determined by measuring the peak anterior pressure within the fluid-filled bladder.
Technical Paper

UMTRI Experimental Techniques in Head Injury Research

1985-06-01
851244
This paper discusses techniques developed and used by the Biosciences Group at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) for measuring three-dimensional head motion, skull bone strain, epidural pressure, and internal brain motion of repressurized cadavers and Rhesus monkeys during head impact. In the experimental design, a stationary test subject is struck by a guided moving impactor of 10 kg (monkeys) and 25 or 65 kg (cadavers). The impactor striking surface is fitted with padding to vary the contact force-time characteristics. The experimental technique uses a nine-accelerometer system rigidly affixed to the skull to measure head motion, transducers placed at specific points below the skull to record epidural pressure, repressurization of both the vascular and cerebrospinal systems, and high-speed cineradiography (at 1000 frames per second) of radiopaque targets.
Technical Paper

Facial, Periorbital and Ocular Injuries Related to Steering-Wheel Airbag Deployments

1997-02-24
970490
To determine the frequency of facial injuries from steering-wheel airbag deployments, 540 consecutive steering-wheel airbag deployments, investigated by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) personnel, were reviewed. About 1 in 3 drivers sustain an injury to the face. Injuries to the area surrounding the eye (periorbital) or to the eyeball (ocular) rarely occur. The frequencies of facial or ocular injuries are the same for belted and unbelted drivers. Drivers of short stature had a higher frequency of facial injury. Females sustained ocular injuries more frequently than males. Untethered airbags were not overly involved in drivers with an ocular injury. No specific make or model car were overly represented in the ocular injury cases.
Technical Paper

Development of a Reusable, Rate-Sensitive Abdomen for the Hybrid III Family of Dummies

2001-11-01
2001-22-0002
The objective of this work was to develop a reusable, rate-sensitive dummy abdomen with abdominal injury assessment capability. The primary goal for the abdomen developed was to have good biofidelity in a variety of loading situations that might be encountered in an automotive collision. This paper presents a review of previous designs for crash dummy abdomens, a description of the development of the new abdomen, results of testing with the new abdomen and instrumentation, and suggestions for future work. The biomechanical response targets for the new abdomen were determined from tests of the mid abdomen done in a companion biomechanical study. The response of the abdominal insert is an aggregate response of the dummy’s entire abdominal area and does not address differences in upper versus lower abdominal response, solid versus hollow organs, or organ position or mobility.
Technical Paper

Car Crashes and Non-Head Impact Cervical Spine Injuries in Infants and Children

1992-02-01
920562
The effects of child safety seats have been well documented in the medical literature. Scattered throughout the medical literature are individual case reports of cervical injury to children restrained in child restraint systems. A review of the literature is provided identifying previous documented cases. The authors also provide new case details of children with cervical spine injury without head contact. An overview of the growth of the infant and specific details in the cervical spine that may contribute to significant cervical injury without head impact is presented.
Technical Paper

Parking Crashes and Parking Assistance System Design: Evidence from Crash Databases, the Literature, and Insurance Agent Interviews

2006-04-03
2006-01-1685
This paper (1) summarizes previous human factors/safety research on parking (8 studies, mostly over 20 years old), (2) provides statistics for 10,400 parking-related crashes in Michigan from 2000-2002, and (3) summarizes interviews with 6 insurance agents concerning parking crashes. These sources indicate: 1 About 1/2 to 3/4 of parking crashes involve backing, often into another moving vehicle while emerging from a parking stall. 2 Eight-and-a-half foot-wide stalls had higher crash rates than wider stalls. 3 Most parallel parking crashes occur on major streets, not minor streets. 4 Lighting and driver impairment were minor factors in parking crashes.
Technical Paper

Child Injuries & Fatalities - Who is Behind the Wheel?

2001-03-05
2001-01-1305
Recent crash data was used to evaluate the safety performance of drivers who transport children. The age difference between drivers and children was found to be an important predictor of crash-related driving behavior and choices. Also, certain driver behaviors and choices when transporting children were identified as creating elevated risk. This study provides information that parents might use to reduce risk when their children are riding with other drivers. The results may also be of interest to professionals concerned with graduated licensing and the establishment and enforcement of laws relating to child endangerment such as drinking and driving with child passengers.
Technical Paper

Biomechanics of 4-Point Seat Belt Systems in Farside Impacts

2006-11-06
2006-22-0012
The biomechanical behavior of a harness style 4-point seat belt system in farside impacts was investigated through dummy and post mortem human subject tests. Specifically, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inboard shoulder belt portion of a 4-point seat belt on the risk of vertebral and soft-tissue neck injuries during simulated farside impacts. Two series of sled tests simulating farside impacts were completed with crash dummies of different sizes, masses and designs to determine the forces and moments on the neck associated with loading of the shoulder belt. The tests were also performed to help determine the appropriate dummy to use in further testing. The BioSID and SID-IIs reasonably simulated the expected kinematics response and appeared to be reasonable dummies to use for further testing. Analysis also showed that dummy injury measures were lower than injury assessment reference values used in development of side impact airbags.
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