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Technical Paper

Engine Fault Detection Using Vibration Signal Reconstruction in the Crank-Angle Domain

Moreover, the results have shown the crank-angle domain analysis using sinc interpolation for signal reconstruction to be more precise than that using linear or cubic spline interpolation. This improved precision enables better fault detection with a more accurate measure of the severity of the fault condition.
Technical Paper

Roof Strength Requirement for Vehicles Involved in Rollover Crash

Rollover crash is one of the most serious safety problems for light weight vehicles. In the USA, rollover crashes account for almost one-third of all occupant fatalities in light weight vehicles. Similar statistics are found for other countries. Thus, rollover crashes have received significant attention in recent years. In the USA and Canada, automotive manufacturers are required to comply with the roof strength requirement of “1.5 times the unloaded vehicle weight” to ensure safety in rollover. NHTSA is currently considering a set of countermeasures to improve the rollover safety, where one of the proposals is to increase the roof strength limit to “2.5 times the unloaded vehicle weight”. This increased roof strength limit seemingly has been motivated based on the benchmark study of current vehicle fleet.
Journal Article

Implementation of Child Biomechanical Neck Behaviour into the Hybrid III Crash Test Dummy

This research focuses on comparing the biomechanical response of the head and neck of the Hybrid III 3-year-old anthropometric test device finite element model and pediatric cadaver data, under flexion-extension bending and axial tensile loading conditions. Previous experimental research characterized the quasi-static biomechanical response of the pediatric cervical spine under flexion-extension bending and tolerance in tensile distraction loading conditions. Significant differences in rotational and linear stiffness were found between the Hybrid III model and the pediatric cadaver data. In this research the biomechanical child cadaver neck response has been implemented into the 3-year-old Hybrid III child dummy FE model. An explicit finite element code (LS-DYNA) and the modified Hybrid III model were used to numerically simulate the previous cadaver tests and validate the altered Hybrid III neck.
Journal Article

Development of an Advanced Driver Model and Simulation Environment for Automotive Racing

The paper describes a closed-loop vehicle simulation environment developed to support a virtual vehicle design and testing methodology, proposed for the University of Windsor Formula SAE team. Virtual prototyping and testing were achieved through co-simulation of Matlab/Simulink® and Carsim®. The development of the required hybrid-control driver and vehicle models are described. The proposed models were validated with in vehicle test data. The proposed methods have shown to be effective and robust in predicting driver response, while controlling the vehicle within the developed simulation environment.
Technical Paper

Variable Torque Distribution Yaw Moment Control for Hybrid Powertrains

This paper proposes and evaluates the use of a robust variable torque distribution (VTD) yaw moment control for an all wheel drive (AWD) hybrid vehicle prototype currently under development. The proposed VTD controller was used to improve the linearity of vehicle response to driver input through the modulation of front-to-rear torque distribution and a corrective torque differential between the left and right rear wheels. The development of a non-linear vehicle model and a reference model tracking sliding mode based control are discussed. The efficacy of the proposed control system was demonstrated through the use of numerical simulations using the developed non-linear vehicle model. The simulation results presented indicate the effectiveness of the proposed system and the potential restrictions to such a system including tire saturation and drivetrain component limitations.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Child Biomechanical Neck Behaviour into a Child FE Model

This research focuses on the further development of a child finite element model whereby implementation of pediatric cadaver testing observations considering the biomechanical response of the neck of children under tensile and bending loading has occurred. Prior to this investigation, the biomechanical neck response was based upon scaled adult cadaver behaviour. Alterations to the material properties associated with ligaments, intervertebral discs and facet joints of the pediatric cervical spine were considered. No alteration to the geometry of the child neck finite element model was considered. An energy based approach was utilized to provide indication on the appropriate changes to local neck biomechanical characteristics. Prior to this study, the biomechanical response of the neck of the child finite element model deviated significantly from the tensile and bending cadaver tests completed by Ouyang et al.
Technical Paper

Use of Rigid and Deformable Child Restraint Seats in Finite Element Simulations of Frontal Crashes

This research focuses on the injury potential of children seated in forward facing child restraint seats during frontal vehicle crashes. Experimental sled tests were completed in accordance to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 213 using a Hybrid III three-year-old dummy in a five point child restraint system. A full vehicle crash test was completed in accordance to the Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 208 with the addition of a three-year-old Hybrid III crash test dummy, seated behind the passenger seat, restrained in the identical five-point child safety seat. Different child restraint finite element models were developed incorporating a subset of the apparatus used in the two experimental tests and simulated using LS-DYNA.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Stability Analysis of Coupled Vehicles for General and Military Applications

The paper describes a study conducted by the University of Windsor Vehicle Dynamics and Control Research Group into the stability of coupled vehicles, e.g., truck-trailer combinations. Several instabilities associated with truck-trailer combinations have been well documented, and have been predicted using mathematical models. Despite having relatively low complexity the classic truck-trailer model, a simple two body, three degree of freedom, linear model has been used extensively in coupled vehicle stability analyses. The aim of the presented work was to extend the conventional coupled vehicle analysis with a set of more elaborate mathematical models evaluating various vehicle configurations. Using in-house multibody dynamics software the linearized equations of motion of three dimensional models were automatically generated for various coupled vehicle configurations with general and military applications. Stability analyses were conducted over a range of expected operating speeds.
Technical Paper

Responses of the Q3, Hybrid III and a Three Year Old Child Finite Element Model Under a Simulated 213 Test

This research focuses on the response of the Q3, Hybrid III 3-year-old dummy and a child finite element model in a simulated 213 sled test. The Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year old child finite element models were developed by First Technology Safety Systems. The 3-year-old child finite element model was developed by Nagoya University by model-based scaling from the AM50 (50 percentile male) total human model for safety. The child models were positioned in a forward facing, five-point child restraint system using Finite Element Model Builder. An acceleration pulse acquired from an experimental 213 sled test, which was completed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 213 using a Hybrid III 3-year-old dummy, was applied to the seat buck supporting the child restraint seat. The numerical simulations utilizing the Q3, Hybrid III 3-year-old and the child finite element model were conducted using the explicit non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA.
Journal Article

A Framework for Collaborative Robot (CoBot) Integration in Advanced Manufacturing Systems

Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (CoBots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. CoBots, unlike traditional CoBots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although CoBots have the potential to become standard in production systems, there is no strong foundation for systems design and development. The focus of this research is to provide a foundation and four tier framework to facilitate the design, development and integration of CoBots. The framework consists of the system level, work-cell level, machine level, and worker level. Sixty-five percent of traditional robots are installed in the automobile industry and it takes 200 hours to program (and reprogram) them.
Journal Article

Simulation of the Axial Cutting Deformation of AA6061-T6 Round Tubes Utilizing Eulerian and Mesh Free Finite Element Formulations

Experimental and numerical studies have been completed on the deformation behaviour of round AA6061-T6 aluminum extrusions during an axial cutting deformation mode employing both curved and straight deflectors to control the bending deformation of petalled side walls. Round extrusions of length 200 mm with a nominal wall thickness of 3.175 mm and an external diameter of 50.8 mm were considered. A heat treated 4140 steel alloy cutter and deflectors, both straight and curved, were designed and manufactured for the testing considered. The four blades of the cutter had an approximate average thickness of 1.00 mm which were designed to penetrate through the round AA6061-T6 extrusions. Experimental observations illustrated high crush force efficiencies of 0.82 for the extrusions which experienced the cutting deformation mode with the deflectors. Total energy absorption during the cutting process was approximately 5.48 kJ.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Mechanical Performance of AA6061-T6 Extrusions Subjected to Axial Crushing and Axial Cutting

Conventional axially loaded energy absorbers dissipate kinetic energy through progressive folding. The significant fluctuations in load and high risk of transition to global bending are drawbacks that engineers have attempted to mitigate through several methods. A novel energy dissipation mechanism, referred to as axial cutting, utilizes thin-walled extrusions and a strengthened cutting tool to absorb energy in an axial impact. Compared to progressive folding, this can be achieved with minimal fluctuations in load during the deformation process. Based upon estimates from finite element models, a series of test cases were postulated where, for 8 and 10-bladed cutting scenarios, greater total energy absorption could be achieved through axial cutting than with progressive folding of geometrically similar extrusions. The specimens were AA6061 extrusions having T6 temper conditions that possessed 63.5 mm outer diameters and 1.5 mm wall thicknesses.