Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 12 of 12
Technical Paper

Severe Frontal Collisions with Partial Overlap - Significance, Test Methods and Car Design

The relevance of the subject is clearly demonstrated by different accident studies. The analysis shows that apart from the traditional high speed full frontal barrier impact, it is also necessary to simulate tests at lower speeds and partial overlap collisions at high speeds. ...This paper describes one of the frontal impact situations, the Severe Partial Overlap Collision (SPOC); accident analyses leading to a test method and its application by description of a new car design concept.
Technical Paper

Guidelines for and the Design of a Car Seat Concept for Improved Protection against Neck Injuries in Rear End Car Impacts

Several probable mechanisms occurring at different phases during the crash sequence have been suggested by researchers. The accident experience with existing seat and head restraint designs is summarized. The results show that there are many factors influencing the risk of neck injury. ...Based on the range of biomechanical research in the area, as well as results from accident investigations and mathematical simulations, biomechanical guidelines and engineering requirements are proposed, with the aim of reducing the risk of neck injuries in a rear end impact.
Technical Paper

Frontal Crash Tests - A Comparison of Methods

Frontal collisions account for the majority of car accidents. Regulations have been in effect since the late sixties, aiming at assuring a basic safety performance for cars in this type of crash.
Technical Paper

A Method to Evaluate the Compression Ratio in IC Engines with Porous Thermal Barrier Coatings

The compression ratio is an important engine design parameter. It determines to a large extend engine properties like the achievable efficiency, the heat losses from the combustion chamber and the exhaust losses. The same properties are affected by insulation of the combustion chamber. It is therefore especially important to know the compression ratio when doing experiments with thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In case of porous TBCs, the standard methods to measure the compression ratio can give wrong results. When measuring the compression ratio by volume, using a liquid, it is uncertain if the liquid fills the total porous volume of the coating. And for a thermodynamic compression ratio estimation, a model for the heat losses is needed, which is not available when doing experiments with insulation. The subject of this paper is the evaluation of an alternative method to assess the compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Inflatable Curtain (IC) Activation in L-type Side Impacts

The Inflatable Curtain (IC) has shown great potential to reduce head injuries in side impacts. This study explores and presents enhanced performance in two steps of improved activation algorithms. Crash data analysis, 21 full scale crash tests and component tests in a custom built drop tower rig have been performed. The IC performance in wider crash scenarios, including side impacts outside the occupant compartment (L-type impacts), was evaluated. Both statistical crash data and in-depth studies were used. It was found in the analysis of real life crashes that moderate to fatal head injuries can occur without intrusion in the occupant compartment. In L-type side impacts, the motion of the occupant relative to the vehicle interior may cause a head impact of sufficiently high severity to cause moderate to severe head injuries. A combined analysis of real world crash data and crash test results indicates that a substantial reduction in moderate to fatal head injuries can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Safety Performance of a Rear Seat Belt System with Optimized Seat Cushion Design

A rear seat belt system with a submarining-preventing seat design was developed. The seat has a contoured floor pan with a pronounced ridge at the front end and a seat belt with carefully located attachment points. Sled tests simulating 30 mph barrier crashes were run with both a standard Part 572 dummy and a Part 572 dummy with a modified pelvis. Both dummies had pelvis mounted submarining indicators. Comparative tests were run with a rear seat with a flat floor pan. The tests proved the efficacy of the ridge type seat in preventing submarining as well as giving low injury criteria. The modified pelvis was found to have submarining characteristics slightly different from the Part 572 pelvis. Under certain conditions the submarining indicators were capable of detecting when the lap belt loads the abdomen, but failed in some cases where the pelvis rotation was excessive.
Technical Paper

Interaction of the Hybrid III Femur and Pelvis - A Mechanical Analysis

In air bag tests without a restraining seat belt (FMVSS208) several users of the Hybrid III dummy have reported a pelvic interference problem during the tests. An insufficient range of motion and a hard metal to metal contact between the pelvis and femur has lead to unexpected chest acceleration waveforms. The paper gives a mechanical analysis of this phenomenon, explaining how the forces acting on the dummy lead to a rotation of the pelvis and femur and how forces arise between the pelvis and the chest. Finally two sample tests where the pelvic interference problem has occurred are presented.
Technical Paper

Lateral Load Sensing Hybrid III Head

Recent cadaver studies have provided data for the development of force and stiffness characteristics of the side of the human head. A Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Dummy (ATD) head was modified to allow direct measurement of impact forces on the parietal and temporal regions by recasting the upper left half of the skull and installing triaxial piezoelectric force transducers. Dynamic impact tests of this modified head were conducted and force/stiffness characteristics for the temporal and parietal areas were compared to existing data on cadaver subjects. It was found that the existing Hybrid III vinyl skin satisfactorily represents the force/stiffness characteristics of the human head in these areas. This modified Hybrid III dummy head was also impacted against typical interior components likely to be contacted during a side impact. The force and acceleration test results are presented.
Technical Paper

Increased Re-Use of Components From ELV's: A Sign of Customer and Environmental Care

Normally, once a vehicle leaves production, newly manufactured spare parts are produced and bought to cover up to 15 years of use. An innovative concept is to view the fleet as a potential spare-parts store. On 1 August 1999 ECRIS AB launched a combined business and environmental project lasting 24 months on “Re-Use of Car Components From The Car Recycling Industry”. The target of the project is to develop and demonstrate a method and the business potential in re-using components from the recycling industry that today are sent for material recycling or depositing in landfills. Increased usage of components from ELV's is a sign of both customer and environmental care.