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Technical Paper

An Emission and Performance Comparison of the Natural Gas Cummins Westport Inc. C-Gas Plus Versus Diesel in Heavy-Duty Trucks

Cummins Westport Inc. (CWI) released for production the latest version of its C8.3G natural gas engine, the C Gas Plus, in July 2001. This engine has increased ratings for horsepower and torque, a full-authority engine controller, wide tolerance to natural gas fuel (the minimum methane number is 65), and improved diagnostics capability. The C Gas Plus also meets the California Air Resources Board optional low-NOx (2.0 g/bhp-h) emission standard for automotive and urban buses. Two pre-production C Gas Plus engines were operated in a Viking Freight fleet for 12 months as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuels Utilization Program. In-use exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and fuel cost were collected and compared with similar 1997 Cummins C8.3 diesel tractors. CWI and the West Virginia University developed an ad-hoc test cycle to simulate the Viking Freight fleet duty cycle from in-service data collected with data loggers.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Emissions Reduction Performance of an SCR System Over Two Years' In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicle Operation

Increasingly stringent oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) regulations worldwide have prompted considerable activity in developing emission control technology to reduce the emissions of these two constituents from heavy-duty diesel engines. NOx has come under particular scrutiny by regulators in the US and in Europe with the promulgation of very stringent regulation by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union (EU). In response, heavy-duty engine manufacturers are considering Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) as a potential NOx reduction option. While SCR performance has been well established through engine dynamometer evaluation under laboratory conditions, there exists little data characterizing SCR performance under real-world operating conditions over time. This project evaluated the field performance of ten SCR units installed on heavy-duty Class 8 highway and refuse trucks.
Journal Article

A Work-Based Window Method for Calculating In-Use Brake-Specific NOx Emissions of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

A work-based window method has been developed to calculate in-use brake-specific oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for all engine speeds and engine loads. During an in-use test, engine speed and engine torque are read from the engine's electronic control unit, and along with time, are used to determine instantaneous engine power. Instantaneous work is calculated using this power and the time differential in the data collection. Work is then summed until the target amount of work is accumulated. The emissions levels are then calculated for that window of work. It was determined that a work window equal to the theoretical Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle work best provides a means of comparison to the FTP certification standard. Also, a failure criterion has been established based on the average amount of power generated in the work window and the amount of time required to achieve the target work window to determine if a particular work window is valid.