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Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Actual Car-Pedestrian Collisions with Dummy and Cadavers

1983-02-01
830053
Preliminary tests were performed by research departments of automobile manufacturers to check the estimated conditions of these accidents before performing their reconstructions. A particular aim was to obtain insights into the mechanisms leading to injuries in pedestrian accidents; more generally reconstructing actual accidents is a privilegied approach to determine human tolerance limits and the corresponding protection criteria on dummies; the injuries resulting from the actual accidents are consequently compared with the data measured on dummies and cadavers in the reconstruction experiments. ...A particular aim was to obtain insights into the mechanisms leading to injuries in pedestrian accidents; more generally reconstructing actual accidents is a privilegied approach to determine human tolerance limits and the corresponding protection criteria on dummies; the injuries resulting from the actual accidents are consequently compared with the data measured on dummies and cadavers in the reconstruction experiments. ...Car-pedestrian accidents were selected with reference to criteria like relevance in terms of injury severities representativity and reproducibility aiming to as accurate as possible reconstructions by dummy and cadaver tests.
Technical Paper

Severe Coach Accident Survey

1985-01-01
856103
Data about severe coach accidents are still limited. More knowledge in this field is required to define safety priorities that designers and manufactures need to consider in future vehicles. ...Despite the good safety level of coaches, some spectacular accidents nevertheless occur causing serious injuries and death to the users, and these are often brought to the public's attention by the media. ...This survey is based on all the fatal coach accidents that occurred in France between 1978 and 1984. The paper describes the causes and accident configurations and analyzes the injury mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Crashworthiness Rating System and Accident Data: Convergences and Divergences

1984-02-01
840200
The goal of this paper is to examine the validity of the Crashworthiness Rating Method (part of the New Car Assessment Program -NCAP - created by NHTSA) with reference to real-life accident data. A program was set up to verify the quality of predictive characteristics of vehicle models' real passive safety protection based on 35 mph crash tests against a 0° barrier. ...The Crashworthiness Rating Method was applied in the French context because seat belt use has been mandatory in France for over 10 years, and we have access to real-life accident files whose size and categories (type of vehicle model, crushed area, obstacle struck, seat occupied, age, and use of seat belt) allowed us to select cases appropriately and thoroughly. ...The results of crashworthiness rating tests expressed by criteria obtained on dummies and also by the OPSEM or the GILLIS index, were compared with accident statistics results expressed in the form of the fatality rate and the social cost index.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Collisions Between Pedestrians and Vehicles Using Adult and Child Dummies

1975-02-01
751167
Collisions between vehicles and pedestrians are analyzed, in conjunction with a bidisciplinary “pedestrian” investigation, by simulating accidents using adult and child dummies. A series of experimental collisions were carried out at varying impact speeds with a sample of vehicles representative of the various front-end profiles of vehicles at present running on the roads, the purpose being to study how these profiles affect the kinematics of the adult and child and to define the risks of injury during the different phases of the accident. ...A series of experimental collisions were carried out at varying impact speeds with a sample of vehicles representative of the various front-end profiles of vehicles at present running on the roads, the purpose being to study how these profiles affect the kinematics of the adult and child and to define the risks of injury during the different phases of the accident. The degrees of severity of the impact against the vehicle and the ground are compared and head impact speeds analyzed.
Technical Paper

Belted or Not Belted: The Only Difference Between Two Matched Samples of 200 Car Occupants

1977-02-01
770917
This study aims at determining, with the maximum precision, the performance of the 3 point safety belt in different accident configurations, and more particularly in frontal collisions. For this purpose, two matched samples were taken from a file of 3000 accidents, analysed by a multidisciplinary study group. ...For this purpose, two matched samples were taken from a file of 3000 accidents, analysed by a multidisciplinary study group. These samples of 100 front seat occupants wearing seat belts, and 100 not wearing seat belts were made up in such a manner that, for every belted occupant, corresponds an occupant not wearing a belt, the one and the other being in equivalent circumstances, using the following factors: Make and type of the vehicle Seat occupied Age (as far as possible) Direction of impact Violence of the impact (same class of ▵V and mean γ) Possible intrusion of passenger compartment Possible overload caused by a rear seat occupant Using this method of comparison, one can appreciate the effectiveness of the 3 point belt and explain the variations of effectiveness that appear in normal case studies.
Technical Paper

From Three-Years-Old to Adult Size - How to Ensure Child Protection in Automobile Accidents

1983-10-17
831664
An analysis of statistical and accidentological data, points to the fact that whereas traffic accidents account for 25 % of adult deaths, they account for nearly 50 % of deaths for children (all kinds of road-users). ...Measures were adopted in France; such as the obligation for children of less than 10-years-old to travel on rear seats of cars and the definition of an homologation procedure for children restraint devices, with the aim of limiting the consequences of these accidents. The most common restraint devices look like little individual seats and are designed to protect young children (less than 3-years-old).
Technical Paper

Field Facial Injuries and Study of Their Simulation with Dummy

1981-10-01
811013
With drivers wearing 3-point seat belts, the head-steering-wheel impact occurs in most serious accidents, so inducing mainly face injuries. In a first part, the authors analyze the injuries observed in a sample of 1180 belted drivers involved in frontal collisions, making a distinction, mainly for facial impacts, between injuries related to the properly so-called face and those to the skull and brain and the different possible lesional correlations.
Technical Paper

Study of “Knee-Thigh-Hip” Protection Criterion

1983-10-17
831629
A series of fresh human cadaver and Part 572 dummy tests was performed under different conditions which were comparable to those of real-world accidents. A European car model mounted on a sled was used; a pair of knee-targets was fixed directly to the car body in front of the passenger knees.
Technical Paper

Submarining Injuries of 3 Pt. Belted Occupants in Frontal Collisions – Description, Mechanisms and Protection

1982-02-01
821158
Accidentological studies show, firstly, what kind of injuries are sustained by seat-belt wearers in frontal collisions, to abdomen, lumbar spine and lower members and, second, how to determine their frequencies and severities. Corresponding data are presented. Then, a synthesis is made in which the results of extensive cadaver testing more than 300 human subjects-are examined with particular emphasis on the abdominal injuries, and on the association of injuries, such as lumbar spine injuries. Causation is particularly looked at. This experimental survey is completed by the results of specialized testing in abdominal tolerance when submarining occurs. These two surveys enable the development of protection. Finally, former attempts for defining an abdominal protection criterion are reviewed and a final definition for such a criterion is presented and justified.
Technical Paper

Predictive Functions for Thoracic Injuries to Belt Wearers in Frontal Collisions and Their Conversion into Protection Criteria

1985-04-01
851722
The data presented in this paper were yielded by tests performed on unembalmed human cadavers fitted with three-point seat belts and subjected to frontal collisions. The purpose is to define one or more functions predictive of thoracic injuries to cadavers whose rib “resistance” is known (i.e. BCF parameter (1)*). These functions predict the number of rib fractures and the thoracic AIS in terms of : anthropometrical data on the cadavers, data representative of the thoracic resistance of the cadavers and physical parameters arising from the deceleration pulses measured on the cadaver vertebrae during the occurrence of impact. By integrating the BCF data which characterize the ribs of the population exposed to the risk of thoracic injury, it is possible satisfactorily to define the tolerance of living road users, in terms of their age. Provided that maximum admissible injury level, and the age for which this limit is required are set, a tolerance criterion can then be defined.
Technical Paper

Conditions Required to Avoid Being Killed in Cars in Side Impact

1983-02-01
830461
One studies the conditions in which occurred side impacts having led to death of 369 car occupants. This sample is representative of the population of fatal collisions having occurred on French roads, in 1980. 28 % of killed were victims of collisions against another private car, 34 % struck a fixed obstacle, 21 % undergone a collision against a truck. The other types of collisions account for 17%. The performances to be reached in order to spare an important number of victims are of a high level. This is measured in function of the distribution of impact violences and occupants' ages.
Technical Paper

Influence of Mass Ratio and Structural Compatibility on the Severity of Injuries Sustained by the Near Side Occupants in Car-to-Car Side Collisions

1979-02-01
791010
In 1344 car-to-car side collisions, the risk of serious or fatal injury to the occupants of struck vehicles seem to increase proportionally to the difference in mass ratios in favor of the striking vehicle. However, in-depth analysis of 63 collisions during which the impact occurred on the side panel of the passenger compartment reveals that the difference in mass ratios is not the principal determinant of injury severity. The frequency and severity of injuries correlates better with the amount of intrusion of the side panel, a type of intrusion which occurs almost systematically, and even at low impact speed, when the bumper and structure in front of the side rail of the striking car override the rocker panel of the struck car.
Technical Paper

Morphological and Biomechanical Study of 146 Human Skulls Used in Experimental Impacts, in Relation with the Observed Injuries

1983-10-17
831619
Biomechanical studies related to the head have been mainly directed towards the determination of cerebral tolerance to impact in the absence of fracture. However, the frequency of skull trauma producing complex fractures and cerebral lesions linked to these fractures should be taken into consideration. On a human being, impacts under similar mechanical conditons can produce either fatal encephalic lesions without fractures or skull fractures with encephalic lesions if the subject has a different skull morphology. A sample of 146 subjects has been studied to determine the relation between the morphological characteristics of the skulls (weight of the skull cap, thickness, weight of the cranial skeleton…), their mineralization. The mechanical tests were performed on bone fragments (bending and shearing tests). Nine accelerometers were used during the experiments of various types of impacts. The results were computerized. The skull fractures observed (a total of 45) are described.
Technical Paper

Results of Experimental Head Impacts on Cadavers: The Various Data Obtained and Their Relations to Some Measured Physical Parameters

1978-02-01
780887
This report describes the results of 42 tests involving direct impacts on the head, performed on fresh, unembalmed, perfused cadavers, helmeted or not helmeted, by means of a free-fall procedure. Three main kinds of impact were investigated: frontal, temporal-parietal, and frontal-facial. The results yield a typology of lesions (associated with various test conditions) that differs from the one described in earlier, similar reports published by A.M. Nahum and R.L. Stalnaker. The measurements confirm a tolerance level of HIC>1500 in the case involving skull impacts under the conditions specified in the text.
Technical Paper

Modification of Part 572 Dummy for Lateral Impact According to Biomechanical Data

1979-02-01
791031
This study is related to the modifications of Part 572 dummy for lateral impact, to aid in the evaluation of the injury reducing potential of automotive lateral protection systems. This was done by modifying the rib cage, arms and shoulders of Part 572 so that its impact performance more closely simulates that of a human. According to biomechanical data coming from cadaver testing, the arm was modified by reducing the size of the structural members and increasing the padding of the arm; the mobility of the shoulder was increased in both forward and upward directions. Moreover, the shoulder was modified to become transversely collapsible to a certain extent. The rib cage was redesigned so as to give a more realistic deformation. The measurement of lateral chest deflection was also incorporated into the rib cage design. The frontal impact characteristics of the dummy, both for impact and belts, were left unchanged.
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