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Standard

Considerations on Ice Formation in Aircraft Fuel Systems

1964-04-20
HISTORICAL
AIR790
In the past, incidents and accidents occurred in the operation of military and civil aircraft which were attributed to the formation of ice in the engine fuel supply system resulting in intermittent or complete starvation of fuel flow. ...For many years incidents and accidents have not occurred on aircraft equipped with fuel heaters and/or operated with fuel containing anti-icing additive.
Standard

Guidance for the Design and Installation of Fuel Quantity Indicating Systems

2017-05-18
CURRENT
AIR5691A
This document is applicable to commercial and military aircraft fuel quantity indication systems. It is intended to give guidance for system design and installation. It describes key areas to be considered in the design of a modern fuel system, and builds upon experiences gained in the industry in the last 10 years.
Standard

Composite Fuel Tanks, Fuel System Design Considerations

2012-12-11
CURRENT
AIR5774
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a compilation of engineering references and data useful to the technical community that can be used to ensure fuel system compatibility with composite structure. This AIR is not a complete detailed design guide and is not intended to satisfy all potential fuel system applications. Extensive research, design, and development are required for each individual application.
Standard

Guidance for the Design and Installation of Fuel Quantity Indicating Systems

2013-01-04
HISTORICAL
AIR5691
This document is applicable to commercial and military aircraft fuel quantity indication systems. It is intended to give guidance for system design and installation. It describes key areas to be considered in the design of a modern fuel system, and builds upon experiences gained in the industry in the last 10 years.
Standard

Minimization of Electrostatic Hazards in Aircraft Fuel Systems

1998-09-01
CURRENT
AIR1662A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides background information, technical data and related technical references for minimization of electrostatic hazards in aircraft fuel systems. Techniques used to minimize the electrostatic hazard include: a Reducing fueling rate into tank bays including use of multiple refueling inlet nozzles. b Reducing refuel plumbing flow velocities. c Introducing fuel into the tank at a low velocity near the bottom and directing it to impinge upon a grounded conducting surface. d Avoiding electrically isolated conductors in the fuel tank. e Using conductivity additives in the fuel.
Standard

Considerations on Ice Formation in Aircraft Fuel Systems

2006-08-24
CURRENT
AIR790C
Ice formation in aircraft fuel systems results from the presence of dissolved and undissolved water in the fuel. Dissolved water or water in solution with hydrocarbon fuels constitutes a relatively small part of the total water potential in a particular system with the quantity dissolved being primarily dependent on the fuel temperature and the water solubility characteristics of the fuel. One condition of undissolved water is entrained water such as water particles suspended in the fuel as a result of mechanical agitation of free water or conversion of dissolved water through temperature reduction. Another condition of undissolved water is free water which may be introduced as a result of refueling or the settling of entrained water which collects at the bottom of a fuel tank in easily detectable quantities separated by a continuous interface from the fuel above. Water may also be introduced as a result of condensation from air entering a fuel tank through the vent system.
Standard

Considerations on Ice Formation in Aircraft Fuel Systems

1999-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR790B
This document suggests and summarizes points that should be considered with respect to the formation of ice in aircraft fuel systems. These summaries represent a cross-section of the opinions of fuel system designers and users.
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