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Technical Paper

Development of an Advanced ATD Thorax System for Improved Injury Assessment in Frontal Crash Environments

Injuries to the thorax and abdomen comprise a significant percentage of all occupant injuries in motor vehicle accidents. While the percentage of internal chest injuries is reduced for restrained front-seat occupants in frontal crashes, serious skeletal chest injuries and abdominal injuries can still result from interaction with steering wheels and restraint systems.
Technical Paper

Abdominal Injury and Response in Side Impact

The purpose of this paper is to address abdominal injury and response in cadaver whole body side impacts and abdominal injury risk functions in SID and BIOSID in whole body impacts. Side impact sled tests were performed at Wayne State University using cadavers, SID and BIOSID, with response measured at the shoulder, thorax, abdominal and pelvic levels. The data at the abdominal level are presented here. These data provide further understanding of abdominal tolerance and response in lateral impact and the ability of side impact dummies to predict abdominal injury. In addition, the padding data provide insight into tolerable armrest loads.
Technical Paper

Lower Limb: Advanced FE Model and New Experimental Data

The Lower Limb Model for Safety (LLMS) is a finite element model of the lower limb developed mainly for safety applications. It is based on a detailed description of the lower limb anatomy derived from CT and MRI scans collected on a subject close to a 50th percentile male. The main anatomical structures from ankle to hip (excluding the hip) were all modeled with deformable elements. The modeling of the foot and ankle region was based on a previous model Beillas et al. (1999) that has been modified. The global validation of the LLMS focused on the response of the isolated lower leg to axial loading, the response of the isolated knee to frontal and lateral impact, and the interaction of the whole model with a Hybrid III model in a sled environment, for a total of nine different set-ups. In order to better characterize the axial behavior of the lower leg, experiments conducted on cadaveric tibia and foot were reanalyzed and experimental corridors were proposed.
Technical Paper

Development of Numerical Models for Injury Biomechanics Research: A Review of 50 Years of Publications in the Stapp Car Crash Conference

Numerical analyses frequently accompany experimental investigations that study injury biomechanics and improvements in automotive safety. Limited by computational speed, earlier mathematical models tended to simplify the system under study so that a set of differential equations could be written and solved. Advances in computing technology and analysis software have enabled the development of many sophisticated models that have the potential to provide a more comprehensive understanding of human impact response, injury mechanisms, and tolerance. In this article, 50 years of publications on numerical modeling published in the Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings and Journal were reviewed. These models were based on: (a) author-developed equations and software, (b) public and commercially available programs to solve rigid body dynamic models (such as MVMA2D, CAL3D or ATB, and MADYMO), and (c) finite element models.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigations of Interactions between the Knee-Thigh-Hip Complex with Vehicle Interior Structures

Although biomechanical studies on the knee-thigh-hip (KTH) complex have been extensive, interactions between the KTH and various vehicular interior design parameters in frontal automotive crashes for newer models have not been reported in the open literature to the best of our knowledge. A 3D finite element (FE) model of a 50th percentile male KTH complex, which includes explicit representations of the iliac wing, acetabulum, pubic rami, sacrum, articular cartilage, femoral head, femoral neck, femoral condyles, patella, and patella tendon, has been developed to simulate injuries such as fracture of the patella, femoral neck, acetabulum, and pubic rami of the KTH complex. Model results compared favorably against regional component test data including a three-point bending test of the femur, axial loading of the isolated knee-patella, axial loading of the KTH complex, axial loading of the femoral head, and lateral loading of the isolated pelvis.
Technical Paper

Regional Tolerance to Impact Acceleration

Human tolerance data have been acquired gradually over the past 25 years and are available for several body regions. There is now sufficient information to design restraint systems which can prevent serious injuries to the user and which have low injury-causing potential. This paper reviews recent research on injury mechanisms and injury tolerance. Most of the research was aimed at solving problems in automotive safety systems. Specific tolerance data for the following body regions are presented: head, chest, spine and lower extremities.
Technical Paper

Below Knee Impact Responses using Cadaveric Specimens

Knee injuries represent about 10% of all injuries suffered during car crashes. Efforts to assess the injury risk to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) have been based on a study available in the literature (Viano et al., 1978), in which only two of the five knees tested had PCL ruptures. The aims of the current study were to repeat the study with a higher number of samples, study the effects of other soft tissues on knee response, and assess the adequacy of the experimental setup for the identification of a PCL tolerance. A total of 14 knees were tested using a high-speed materials testing machine. Eight were intact knees (with the patella and all the muscular and ligamentous structures), three were PCL-only knees (patella and all the muscular and ligamentous structures other than the PCL removed), and the last three were PCL-only knees with the tibia protected from bending fracture.
Technical Paper

Lower Abdominal Tolerance and Response

Twelve unembalmed human cadavers were tested for lower abdominal injury tolerance and mechanical response. The impacts were in an anterior-to-posterior direction and the level of impact was primarily in the lower abdomen at the L3 level of the lumbar spine. The impactor mass was either 32 kg or 64 kg. The impactor face was a 25 mm diameter aluminum bar, with the long axis of the bar parallel to the width of the cadaver body. In this paper, mechanical response is presented in terms of force-time and penetration-time histories, and force vs. abdominal penetration cross-plots. Injury tolerance is described in terms of post-impact necropsy findings and AIS ratings. Based on our studies, the lower abdomen of the unembalmed human cadaver is much less stiff than is suggested by previous research, and the stiffness is velocity and mass dependent, as is suggested by the correlation coefficients presented in this paper. Force-time history and force-penetration response corridors are presented.
Technical Paper

A Severe Ankle and Foot Injury in Frontal Crashes and Its Mechanism

In a frontal automotive crash, the driver's foot is usually stepping on the brake pedal as an instinctive response to avoid a collision. The tensile force generated in the Achilles tendon produces a compressive preload on the tibia. If there is intrusion of the toe board after the crash, an additional external force is applied to the driver's foot. A series of dynamic impact tests using human cadaveric specimens was conducted to investigate the combined effect of muscle preloading and external force. A constant tendon force was applied to the calcaneus while an external impact force was applied to the forefoot by a rigid pendulum. Preloading the tibia significantly increased the tibial axial force and the combination of these forces resulted in five tibial pylon fractures out of sixteen specimens.
Technical Paper

A New Model Comparing Impact Responses of the Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Human Brain

A new three-dimensional human head finite element model, consisting of the scalp, skull, dura, falx, tentorium, pia, CSF, venous sinuses, ventricles, cerebrum (gray and white matter), cerebellum, brain stem and parasagittal bridging veins has been developed and partially validated against experimental data of Nahum et al (1977). A frontal impact and a sagittal plane rotational impact were simulated and impact responses from a homogeneous brain were compared with those of an inhomogeneous brain. Previous two-dimensional simulation results showed that differentiation between the gray and white matter and the inclusion of the ventricles are necessary in brain modeling to match regions of high shear stress to locations of diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The three-dimensional simulation results presented here also showed the necessity of including these anatomical features in brain modeling.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lap Belt and Three-Point Restraints on Pregnant Baboons Subjected to Deceleration

A series of 24 pregnant baboons was impacted under similar conditions. The only major variable was the difference in maternal restraint. The fetal death rate of 8.3% (1/12) among maternal animals impacted with three-point restraint was significantly different from five fetal deaths among 10 maternal animals impacted under lap belt restraint alone (p < 0.05). It is concluded that shoulder harness restraint should be recommended for use by pregnant travelers as being significantly more protective of fetal welfare when compared with lap belt restraint alone.
Technical Paper

Shear Stress Distribution in the Porcine Brain due to Rotational Impact

Two-dimensional finite element models for three coronal sections of the porcine brain have been developed and the results were compared with injury data from animal experiments performed at the University of Pennsylvania (Ross et al, 1994). The models consisted of a three-layered skull, dura, CSF, white matter, gray matter and ventricles. Model I, a section at the septal nuclei and anterior commissure level, contains 490 solid elements and 108 membrane elements. Model II, a section at the rostral-thalamic level, contains 644 solid elements and 130 membrane elements. Model III, a section at the caudal hippocampal level, contains 548 solid elements and 104 membrane elements. Plane strain conditions were assumed for all models. Material properties of the brain were taken from previous human brain models, but the white matter was assumed to be about 60% stronger than the gray matter with the same Poisson's ratio.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computer Model to Predict Aortic Rupture Due to Impact Loading

Aortic injuries during blunt thoracic impacts can lead to life threatening hemorrhagic shock and potential exsanguination. Experimental approaches designed to study the mechanism of aortic rupture such as the testing of cadavers is not only expensive and time consuming, but has also been relatively unsuccessful. The objective of this study was to develop a computer model and to use it to predict modes of loading that are most likely to produce aortic ruptures. Previously, a 3D finite element model of the human thorax was developed and validated against data obtained from lateral pendulum tests. The model included a detailed description of the heart, lungs, rib cage, sternum, spine, diaphragm, major blood vessels and intercostal muscles. However, the aorta was modeled as a hollow tube using shell elements with no fluid within, and its material properties were assumed to be linear and isotropic.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties of the Cadaveric and Hybrid III Lumbar Spines

This study identified the mechanical properties of ten cadaveric lumbar spines and two Hybrid III lumbar spines. Eight tests were performed on each specimen: tension, compression, anterior shear, posterior shear, left lateral shear, flexion, extension and left lateral bending. Each test was run at a displacement rate of 100 mm/sec. The maximum displacements were selected to approximate the loading range of a 50 km/h Hybrid III dummy sled test and to be non-destructive to the specimens. Load, linear displacement and angular displacement data were collected. Bending moment was calculated from force data. Each mode of loading demonstrated consistent characteristics. The load-displacement curves of the Hybrid III lumbar spine demonstrated an initial region of high stiffness followed by a region of constant stiffness.
Technical Paper

Simulated Automotive Side Impact on the Isolated Human Pelvis: Phase I: Development of a Containment Device Phase II: Analysis of Pubic Symphysis Motion and Overall Pelvic Compression

PHASE I - A containment fixture was designed and manufactured to stabilize and preload isolated human pelves within a DYNATUP™ Drop Tower during simulated automotive side impact. The fixture was utilized during thirteen parametric tests aimed at determining boundary conditions which simulate inertial properties of whole cadavers during impacts of the isolated human pelvis. The resulting pelvic injuries (i.e., fractures) ranged from no fracture to complex acetabular fracture. These injuries were sustained with drop masses of 14.2-25.2 kg and impact velocities of 4.1-6.4 m/s. Peak force, measured during impact, ranged from 2.0-8.2 kN. PHASE II - Phrase II studies used nine additional human pelves to explored pelvis stiffness and pubis symphysis mobility under lateral impact to the greater trochanter. The containment device designed and tested in Phase I was utilized to stabilize and compressively preload the specimens during impact.
Technical Paper

Performance and Mechanical Properties of Various Padding Materials Used in Cadaveric Side Impact Sled Tests

Various types of padding have been used in side impact sled tests with cadavers. This paper presents a summary of performance of the padding used in NHTSA and WSU/CDC sled tests, and a summary of material properties of padding used in cadaveric sled tests. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on padding performance in cadavers, rather than optimum padding performance in dummies.
Technical Paper

Effect of Head-Neck Position on Cervical Facet Stretch of Post Mortem Human Subjects during Low Speed Rear End Impacts

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of head-neck position on cervical facet stretch during low speed rear end impact. Twelve tests were conducted on four Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in a generic bucket seat environment. Three head positions, namely Normal (neutral), Zero Clearance between the head and head restraint, and Body Forward positions were tested. A high-speed x-ray system was used to record the motion of cervical vertebrae during these tests. Results demonstrate that: a) The maximum mean facet stretch at head restraint contact occurs at MS4 and MS5 for the Body Forward condition, b) The lower neck flexion moment, prior to head contact, shows a non-linear relationship with facet stretch, and c) “Differential rebound” during rear end impact increases facet stretch.