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Technical Paper

Digital Materials Methods for DPF Development

Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) material design based on a traditional design of experiments approach can be very time consuming and costly, due to the high number of tests and prototype material samples required. This provides an opportunity for the application of simulation tools at the microscopic scale, which are recently seeing increasing use in DPF material studies. The current work describes a framework for such micro-scale simulations based on high fidelity digital representations of the porous materials of interest, on the rationale that the performance of the latter materials depends strongly on the coupling of different physicochemical phenomena occurring at the microscopic scale where material morphology is important.
Technical Paper

Progress in Diesel Particulate Filter Simulation

DPF design, system integration, regeneration control strategy optimization and ash ageing assessment, based on a traditional design of experiments approach becomes very time consuming and costly, due to the high number of tests required. This provides a privileged window of opportunity for the application of simulation tools and hence simulation is increasingly being used for the design of exhaust after-treatment systems with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). DPF behavior depends strongly on the coupling of physico-chemical phenomena occurring over widely disparate spatial and temporal scales and a state-of-the-art simulation approach recognizes and exploits these facts introducing certain assumptions and/or simplifications to derive an accurate but computationally tractable DPF simulation tool, for the needs of industrial users.
Journal Article

Micro-Simulation of NO-NO2 Transport and Reaction in the Wall of a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter

Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFs) continue to be an important emission control solution and are now also expanding to include additional functionalities such as gas species oxidation (such as CO, hydrocarbons and NO) and even storage phenomena (such as NOx and NH3 storage). Therefore an in depth understanding of the coupled transport - reaction phenomena occurring inside a CDPF wall can provide useful guidance for catalyst placement and improved accuracy over idealized effective medium 1-D and 0-D models for CDPF operation. In the present work a previously developed 3-D simulation framework for porous materials is applied to the case of NO-NO2 turnover in a granular silicon carbide CDPF. The detailed geometry of the CDPF wall is digitally reconstructed and micro-simulation methods are used to obtain detailed descriptions of the concentration and transport of the NO and NO2 species in the reacting environment of the soot cake and the catalyst coated pores of the CDPF wall.
Technical Paper

Advanced High Porosity Ceramic Honeycomb Wall Flow Filters

A new platform of advanced ceramic composite filter materials for diesel particulate matter and exhaust gas emission control has been developed. These materials exhibit high porosity, narrow pore-size distribution, robust thermo-mechanical strength, and are extruded into high cell density honeycomb structures for wall-flow filter applications. These new high porosity filters provide a structured filtration surface area and a highly connected wall pore space which is fully accessible for multi-phase catalytic reactions. The cross-linked microstructure (CLM™) pore architecture provides a large surface area to host high washcoat/catalyst loadings, such as those required for advanced multi-functional catalysts (4-way converter applications).
Technical Paper

Flow Resistance Descriptors for Diesel Particulate Filters: Definitions, Measurements and Testing

In the present work a practice for conducting experiments and analyzing the fundamental descriptors of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) flow resistance behavior is described. The recommended practice addresses each of the following areas: definition of flow resistance descriptors, filter geometrical characteristics, experimental setup and data analysis methods. The sources of errors in each area are identified and a sensitivity analysis is performed. Finally, the recommended practice is applied to several filter materials and configurations tested in the laboratory to determine objectively a set of flow resistance descriptors (namely the filter wall permeability, inlet/outlet loss coefficient) and their error bars. It is expected that application of the recommended practice for the determination of the flow resistance descriptors of DPFs will lead to better quality control procedures and meaningful comparisons of experimental data collected at different laboratories.
Technical Paper

Computationally Fast Implementations of Convection, Diffusion and Chemical Reaction Phenomena in Diesel Particulate Filters

In the present work we derive analytical solutions for the problem of convection, diffusion and chemical reaction in wall-flow monoliths. The advantage of having analytical instead of numerical treatments is clear as the analytical solutions not only can be exploited to bring full scale simulations of diesel particulate filters to the real time domain, but also they enable efficient implementations on computationally limited engine control units (ECUs) for on-board management and control of emission control systems. The presentation describes the mathematical problem formulation, the governing dimensionless parameters and the corresponding assumptions. Then the analytical solution is derived and several asymptotic (for limiting values of the parameters) and approximating solutions are developed, corresponding to different physical situations. Reactant distributions in the filter are presented and discussed for several values of the parameters.
Technical Paper

Study of a Sintered Metal Diesel Particulate Trap

This paper describes work supporting the development of a new Diesel particulate trap system for heavy duty vehicles based on porous sintered metal materials that exhibit interesting characteristics with respect to ash tolerance. Experimental data characterizing the material (permeability, soot and ash deposit properties) are obtained in a dedicated experimental setup in the side-stream of a modern Diesel engine as well as in an accelerated ash loading rig. System level simulations coupling the new media characteristics to 3-D CFD software for the optimization of complete filter systems are then performed and comparative assessment results of example designs are given.