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Technical Paper

Application of Force Balance Method in Accident Reconstruction

In the field of accident reconstruction, there has been a significant amount of effort devoted to the calculation and derivation of vehicle crush energy and vehicle stiffness. ...This ultimately increases the accuracy of the overall accident reconstruction. In this paper, examples will be given to illustrate the use of such a methodology. ...But, oftentimes, crush profiles and/or crush stiffnesses are not available and accident constructionists face the situation of insufficient information. In some such cases, the force balance method can be used to reduce the uncertainty.
Technical Paper

Accident Investigation and Impairment Study of Lower Extremity Injury

The automotive safety community has grown increasingly aware of the societal costs of injury impairment and disability resulting from automobile accidents. A significant portion of this impairment can be attributed to lower extremity trauma. ...A significant portion of this impairment can be attributed to lower extremity trauma. An accident data study was conducted to determine lower extremity injury frequencies and mechanisms for restrained front-seat occupants in frontal collisions. ...A query of the 1988-1990 NASS (National Accident Sampling System) data provided information on pelvis, femur, knee, leg, and ankle and foot injuries.
Technical Paper

Vehicle and Occupant Response in Heavy Truck to Passenger Car Sideswipe Impacts

This has been an important issue in the field of accident analysis and reconstruction because of the frequency with which the accidents occur and the costs of injuries allegedly associated with them. ...Second, typical accident reconstruction programs are not well suited to accurately determine the vehicle speed changes and accelerations resulting from impacts where the line of the impact force lies far from the vehicle center of gravity, and is influenced by specific features of vehicle geometry. ...The tests were performed to duplicate a real world accident that resulted in litigation. The acceleration near the car’s center of gravity is measured, as is the acceleration of the head of an adult male human volunteer.
Technical Paper

The Use of Single Moving Vehicle Testing to Duplicate the Dynamic Vehicle Response From Impacts Between Two Moving Vehicles

The results of a reconstruction of the accident will also be described. Next, simulations of the accident using the EDSMAC vehicle impact model included in the HVE-2D computer program developed by EDC Corporation are presented in which both vehicles are moving, only the struck vehicle is moving, and only the striking vehicle is moving. ...The acceptability of this method of testing is not as obvious for the reconstruction of accidents where the impact is non-central, or the angle of impact is not orthogonal. ...While the pre- and post-impact speeds of the vehicles involved in an accident can not be duplicated using this method, closing speeds, vehicle damage, vehicle speed changes and vehicle accelerations can be duplicated.
Journal Article

Comparison of Heavy Truck Engine Control Unit Hard Stop Data with Higher-Resolution On-Vehicle Data

These data provide useful information to accident reconstruction personnel. In past studies, these data have been analyzed and compared to higher-resolution on-vehicle data for several heavy trucks and several makes of passenger cars. ...The goal of this study was to help accident reconstruction professionals better understand engine ECU “hard stop” data currently available on most commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

Automotive Restraint Loading Evidence for Moderate Speed Impacts and a Variety of Restraint Conditions

One of the principal tools used by the accident reconstructionist to determine whether a vehicle occupant was properly restrained when an accident occurred is the examination and analysis of impact evidence and damage to interior structures of the vehicle. ...One of the principal tools used by the accident reconstructionist to determine whether a vehicle occupant was properly restrained when an accident occurred is the examination and analysis of impact evidence and damage to interior structures of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Response of the 6-Month-Old CRABI in Forward Facing and Rear Facing Child Restraints to a Simulated Real World Impact

The data from these instruments is examined and compared to the observed kinematics for each dummy, and to the injuries suffered in the actual accident. It is shown that the forward facing front seat placement of the 6-month-old and infant/car seat exposes that occupant to at least twice the accelerations and forces compared to rear-facing placement in the rear seat.
Technical Paper

S-E-A Roll Simulator as a Parametric Test Device

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has utilized acceleration sled testing for decades to allow for the evaluation of occupant kinematics, occupant protection systems, and occupant exposure in many modes of accidents. Such systems have the advantage of being non-destructive, having relatively low turnaround time between tests, and precise control of input parameters.
Technical Paper

Delta-V, Barrier Equivalent Velocity and Acceleration Pulse of a Vehicle During an Impact

Delta-V and Barrier Equivalent Velocity (BEV) are terms that have been used for many years to describe aspects of what happened to a vehicle when an impact occurred. That is, they are used to describe some physical change in the vehicle state before the impact as compared to after the impact. Specifically, the Delta-V describes the change in the vehicle velocity vector from just before the impact until just after the impact. The BEV attempts to quantify the energy required to cause the damage associated with an impact. In order to understand what happens to a vehicle and its occupants during an impact, it is necessary to examine the acceleration pulse undergone by the vehicle during the impact. The acceleration pulse describes, in detail, how the Delta-V occurs as a function of time, and is related with the deformation of the vehicle as well as the object contacted by the vehicle during an impact.
Technical Paper

Simplified MADYMO Model of the IHRA Head-form Impactor

Interest in pedestrian head injury has prompted a need to measure the potential of head injury resulting from vehicular impacts. A variety of head impactors have been developed to fulfill this measurement need. A protocol has been developed by the International Harmonization Research Activity (IHRA) to use head impactor measurements to predict head injury. However, the effect of certain characteristics of the various head impactors on the measurement procedure is not well understood. This includes the location of the accelerometers within the head-form and testing the head-form under the variety of conditions necessary to establish its global performance. To address this problem, a simple model of the IHRA head-form has been developed. This model was created using MADYMO© and consists of a solid sphere with a second sphere representing the vinyl covering. Stiffness and damping characteristics of the vinyl covering were determined analytically from drop test data of an IHRA head-form.