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Journal Article

CFD Analyses on 2-Stroke High Speed Diesel Engines

In recent years, interest has been growing in the 2-Stroke Diesel cycle, coupled to high speed engines. One of the most promising applications is on light aircraft piston engines, typically designed to provide a top brake power of 100-200 HP with a relatively low weight. The main advantage yielded by the 2-Stroke cycle is the possibility to achieve high power density at low crankshaft speed, allowing the propeller to be directly coupled to the engine, without a reduction drive. Furthermore, Diesel combustion is a good match for supercharging and it is expected to provide a superior fuel efficiency, in comparison to S.I. engines. However, the coupling of 2-Stroke cycle and Diesel combustion on small bore, high speed engines is quite complex, requiring a suitable support from CFD simulation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Biodiesel from Microalgae as Fuel for Diesel Engines

Biodiesel from Algae appears as an almost ideal solution to address the problem of decreasing availability of conventional fossil fuels, as well as to reduce the impact in terms of CO2 of internal combustion engines. In comparison to other biodiesels, algae do not compete for the land use with food cultures, and they have an excellent oil yield. Despite the significant amount of technical reports about the production process of algal biodiesel, detailed information about the application to current production engines is almost completely missing. The present paper describes the experimental campaign carried out on a current production 4-cylinder, 4-stroke naturally aspirated Diesel engine, running on standard Diesel oil and on a blend made up of 20% of oil manufactured by transesterification of Microalgae (B20). Performance and emission parameters have been measured over the whole engine operating range.
Technical Paper

Development of a High Performance Engine for a Formula SAE Racer

The paper reviews the theoretical and experimental development of the engine powering the 2011 Formula SAE single seater of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE). The general design criteria followed by the UNIMORE team are discussed and compared to those chosen by other competitors. In particular, the reasons supporting the selection of the engine type (single cylinder by Husqvarna) are explained in details. The adoption of a single cylinder, instead of the more powerful four-in-line, required a much bigger effort for getting an acceptable level of brake power. Therefore, the development was massively supported by CFD simulation (both 1D and 3D) and by experiments. It was found that the most important design areas for the single cylinder are: the intake system, including the restrictor (20 mm), the intake runner and the plenum, and the muffler.
Technical Paper

Two-Stroke Gasoline Engines for Small-Medium Passenger Cars

Among all the reciprocating internal combustion engines, gasoline two-strokes can reach the highest specific power, making this technology a natural enabler of downsizing and/or down-speeding. In addition, multi-cylinder 2-stroke engines may be an ideal match for electrical superchargers, providing very efficient power units. The paper explores through CFD-1d simulations and empirical hypotheses the potential of a 3-cylinder, 1.0 liter, GDI 2-stroke turbocharged engine featuring a patented rotary valve for the optimization of the scavenging process, the latter being of the loop type (piston-controlled ports). The lubrication system is the same of a 4-stroke engine (no crankcase pumps). The supercharging system is made up of a turbocharger and an electric compressor, serially connected. The power of the electric compressor is limited to 2 kW, in order to comply with standard automotive 12 V electric systems.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis on an IDI CI Engine Fueled by Microalgae

The third generation of biodiesels, derived from microalgae, is one of the most interesting options for the replacement of fossil fuels. While the use of first generation biodiesels on different types of compression ignition engines is well documented in the open literature, much less information is available on algal fuels. As a matter of fact, the influence on combustion and pollutant emissions is not definitively assessed, depending on the combination of the specific features of both fuel and engine. The aim of this paper is to analyze the combustion process in a small industrial engine fueled by an algal Biodiesel, blended with standard Diesel fuel. The blend composition is the one typically used in most applications, i.e. 20% of biodiesel and 80% of Diesel (B20).
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emissions Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Oxygen-Enriched Air

Oxygen enriched air (EA) is a well known industrial mixture in which the content of oxygen is higher respect the atmospheric one, in the range 22-35%. Oxygen EA can be obtained by desorption from water, taking advantage of the higher oxygen solubility in water compared to the nitrogen one, since the Henry constants of this two gases are different. The production of EA by this new approach was already studied by experimental runs and theoretical considerations. New results using salt water are reported. EA promoted combustion is considered as one of the most interesting technologies to improve the performance in diesel engines and to simultaneously control and reduce pollution. This paper explores, by means of 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations, the effects of EA on the performance and exhaust emissions of a high-speed direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Experimental Investigation of a 2-Stroke GDI Engine for Range Extender Applications

The basic requirements for range extender engines are low cost, compact dimensions, high specific power, good efficiency, low pollutant emission levels, excellent NVH behavior. For a power rate lower than 30 kW, it is very difficult to find an off-the-shelf engine meeting all the requirements listed above, so that a new generation of dedicated engines is under development. Following a preliminary theoretical work presented in 2012 [1], the current paper reviews the design process and the first experimental tests carried out on a novel 2-stroke GDI single-cylinder engine, rated at 30 kW at 4500 rpm, featuring a patented induction valve and a piston pump for scavenging. A prototype has been designed with the support of CFD simulations, then built and tested at the BRC laboratories, in Cherasco (Italy).
Technical Paper

Port Design Criteria for 2-Stroke Loop Scavenged Engines

Interest in 2-stroke engines has been recently renewed by several prototypes, developed for the automotive and/or the aircraft field. Loop scavenging, with piston controlled ports is particularly attractive, but the configurations successfully developed in the past for motorbike racing (in particular, the 125cc unit displacement, crankcase pump engines), are not suitable for automotive applications. Therefore, new criteria are necessary to address the scavenging system design of the new generation of 2-stroke automobile/aircraft engines. The paper reviews the transfer ports optimization of a loop scavenged 2-stroke cylinder, whose main parameters were defined in a previous study. The optimization has been carried by means of a parametric grid, considering 3 parameters (2 tilt angles, and the focus distance), and 3 different engine speeds (2000-3000-4000 rpm, assuming a Diesel engine). A set of scavenging CFD-3d simulations have been performed by using a customized version of KIVA-3V.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Supercharging Concepts for SI Engine Downsizing

The paper reviews the design of the supercharging system for a strongly downsized engine, to be installed on a sport car. Design is supported by cfd-1d engine simulations, using an experimentally calibrated model. The goal of the supercharging system is to deliver the required values of boost pressure at steady operating conditions, and to maintain or improve the full size engine response during acceleration (one of the most critical issues for downsized engines). Two options have been considered: 1) two-stage turbocharging, with two small turbochargers as a high-pressure stage, and one big turbo as low pressure stage (referred to as “TRITURBO”; 2) two-stage supercharging made up of one low pressure stage turbocharger and one electric supercharger (referred to as “E-SUPER”).
Technical Paper

Comparison between a Diesel and a New 2-Stroke GDI Engine on a Series Hybrid Passenger Car

The internal combustion engine (ICE) for a series hybrid vehicle must be very compact, fuel efficient reliable and clean; furthermore it should possess excellent NVH features; finally, the cost should be as low as possible. An unconventional but not exotic solution, potentially ideal to fulfill all the above mentioned requirements, is represented by a 2-Stroke externally scavenged GDI engine, without poppet valves. BRC (Cherasco, Italy) and PRIMAVIS (Turin, Italy) are currently developing an engine of this type, incorporating a patented rotary valve for the control of the charge induced to cylinder. The development is supported by extensive CFD simulations, which are able to predict all the main engine performance characteristics. The paper analyzes, from a theoretical point of view, the installation of the engine on an electric vehicle, previously optimized for a small Diesel engine (Smart 0.8 l CDi).
Technical Paper

Commercial Vehicles: New Diesel Engine Concepts for Euro VI and Beyond

The paper presents a numerical investigation, aimed to explore the potential of 2-stroke Diesel engines, able to meet Euro VI requirements, for application to medium size commercial vehicles (power rate: 80 kW at 2600 rpm, max. torque 420 Nm from 1200 to 1400 rpm). The study is based on experimental performance of a highly developed 4-stroke engine. Two different designs are considered: Loop and Uniflow scavenging, the latter obtained through an opposed piston configuration. In both cases, no poppet valves are used, and the lubrication is provided by a 4-stroke-like oil sump. The study started with the development of a 4-stroke EURO VI engine, on the basis of a previous EURO IV version. A prototype of the new engine (named 430) was built and tested.
Journal Article

2-Stroke High Speed Diesel Engines for Light Aircraft

The paper describes a numerical study, supported by experiments, on light aircraft 2-Stroke Direct Injected Diesel engines, typically rated up to 110 kW (corresponding to about 150 imperial HP). The engines must be as light as possible and they are to be directly coupled to the propeller, without reduction drive. The ensuing main design constraints are: i) in-cylinder peak pressure as low as possible (typically, no more than 120 bar); ii) maximum rotational speed limited to 2600 rpm. As far as exhaust emissions are concerned, piston aircraft engines remain unregulated but lack of visible smoke is a customer requirement, so that a value of 1 is assumed as maximum Smoke number. For the reasons clarified in the paper, only three cylinder in line engines are investigated. Reference is made to two types of scavenging and combustion systems, designed by the authors with the assistance of state-of-the-art CFD tools and described in detail in a parallel paper.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Diesel Engine for Light Aircraft: IDI vs. DI Combustion Systems

The paper presents a numerical study aimed at converting a commercial lightweight 2-Stroke Indirect Injection (IDI) Diesel aircraft engine to Direct Injection(DI). First, a CFD-1D model of the IDI engine was built and calibrated against experiments at the dynamometer bench. This model is the baseline for the comparison between the IDI and the DI combustion systems. The DI chamber design was supported by extensive 3D-CFD simulations, using a customized version of the KIVA-3V code. Once a satisfactory combustion system was identified, its heat release and wall transfer patterns were entered in the CFD-1D model, and a comparison between the IDI and the DI engine was performed, considering the same Air-Fuel Ratio limit. It was found that the DI combustion system yields several advantages: better take-off performance (higher power output), lower fuel consumption at cruise conditions, improved altitude performance, reduced cooling requirements.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Externally Scavenged Engines for Range Extender Applications

In this work, the authors assess the potential of the 2-stroke concept applied to Range Extender engines, proposing 3 different configurations: 1) Supercharged, Compression Ignition; 2) Turbocharged, Compression Ignition; 3) Supercharged, Gasoline Direct Injection. All the engines feature a single power cylinder of 0.49l, external air feed by piston pump and an innovative induction system. The scavenging is of the Loop type, without poppet valves, and with a 4-stroke like lubrication system (no crankcase pump). Engine design has been supported by CFD simulations, both 1D (engine cycle analysis) and 3D (scavenging, injection and combustion calculations). All the numerical models used in the study are calibrated against experiments, carried out on engines as similar as possible to the proposed ones.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Assessment of the CO2 Emissions Benefit of Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

Two-stroke diesel engines could be a promising solution for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from light-duty vehicles. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of two-stroke engines in achieving a substantial reduction in CO2 emissions compared to four-stroke diesel baselines. As part of this study 1-D models were developed for loop scavenged two-stroke and opposed piston two-stroke diesel engine concepts. Based on the engine models and an in-house vehicle model, projections were made for the CO2 emissions for a representative light-duty vehicle over the New European Driving Cycle and the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure. The loop scavenged two-stroke engine had about 5-6% lower CO2 emissions over the two driving cycles compared to a state of the art four-stroke diesel engine, while the opposed piston diesel engine had about 13-15% potential benefit.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Split Injections at Low Load in an HDDI Diesel Engine Equipped with a Piezo Injector

In order to investigate the effects of split injection on emission formation and engine performance, experiments were carried out using a heavy duty single cylinder diesel engine. Split injections with varied dwell time and start of injection were investigated and compared with single injection cases. In order to isolate the effect of the selected parameters, other variables were kept constant. In this investigation no EGR was used. The engine was equipped with a common rail injection system with a piezo-electric injector. To interpret the observed phenomena, engine CFD simulations using the KIVA-3V code were also made. The results show that reductions in NOx emissions and brake specific fuel consumption were achieved for short dwell times whereas they both were increased when the dwell time was prolonged. No EGR was used so the soot levels were already very low in the cases of single injections.
Journal Article

Comparison between 2 and 4-Stroke Engines for a 30 kW Range Extender

The paper compares two different design concepts for a range extender engine rated at 30 kW at 4500 rpm. The first project is a conventional 4-Stroke SI engine, 2-cylinder, 2-valve, equipped with port fuel injection. The second is a new type of 2-Stroke loop scavenged SI engine, featuring a direct gasoline injection and a patented rotary valve for enhancing the induction and scavenging processes. Both power units have been virtually designed with the help of CFD simulation. Moreover, for the 2-Stroke engine, a prototype has been also built and tested at the dynamometer bench, allowing the authors to make a reliable theoretical comparison with the well assessed 4-Stroke unit.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid Power Unit for Formula SAE Application: ICE CFD-1D Optimization and Vehicle Lap Simulation

The paper reviews the CFD optimization of a motorcycle engine, modified for the installation in a hybrid powertrain of a Formula SAE car. In a parallel paper [Development of a hybrid power unit for Formula SAE application: packaging optimization and thermo-mechanical design of the electric motor case], the choice of the donor engine (Ducati 959 “Panigale”) is thoroughly discussed, along with all the hardware modifications oriented to minimize the new powertrain dimensions, weight and cost, and guarantee the mechanical reliability. In the current paper, the attention is focused on two main topics: 1) CFD-1D tuning of the modified Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), in order to comply with the Formula SAE regulations, as well as to maximize the power output; 2) Simulation of the vehicle in racing conditions, comparison between a conventional and a hybrid powertrain
Technical Paper

An Innovative Hybrid Powertrain for Small and Medium Boats

Hybridization is a mainstream technology for automobiles, and its application is rapidly expanding in other fields. Marine propulsion is one such field that could benefit from electrification of the powertrain. In particular, for boats to sail in enclosed waterways, such as harbors, channels, lagoons, a pure electric mode would be highly desirable. The main challenge to accomplish hybridization is the additional weight of the electric components, in particular the batteries. The goal of this project is to replace a conventional 4-stroke turbocharged Diesel engine with a hybrid powertrain, without any penalty in terms of weight, overall dimensions, fuel efficiency, and pollutant emissions. This can be achieved by developing a new generation of 2-Stroke Diesel engines, and coupling them to a state-of-the art electric system. For the thermal units, two alternative designs without active valve train are considered: opposed piston and loop scavenged engines.
Technical Paper

Potential of Electrification Applied to Non-Road Diesel Engines

The new Stage 5 European regulation for Non Road Mobile Machinery has introduced a set of challenging limits on pollutant emissions, for all the categories of internal combustion engines (<19 kW; 19-56 kW; >56kW). The improvement of combustion may not be sufficient to comply with these limits, even for those engines already equipped with modern Common Rail injection systems: as a result, the after-treatment plant is bounded to become much more complex and expensive, both in terms of installation and lifetime management and service. Besides the technical aspects, the new components may have a negative impact also on the perception of customers, used to run their machinery without any particular care in very challenging environments.